Focus on the gut-brain axis

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Petr75
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Tue Jan 07, 2020 1:39 am

2014 Mar-Apr
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH; Bethesda
Role of SFB in autoimmune arthritis: an example of regulation of autoreactive T cell sensitivity in the gut.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4063855/

Abstract

A key role for segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) has recently been demonstrated in several mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The mechanism governing the activation of systemic autoreactive T cell responses by such commensals in the gut, however, remained elusive. In this addendum, we discuss recent results addressing the local regulation of autoreactive T cell sensitivity by these unique bacteria. We found that the presence of SFB in the gut microbiota was sufficient to promote a local inflammatory microenvironment altering the T cell-intrinsic desensitization process normally occurring in response to chronic self-antigen stimulation. In the absence of this key tolerance checkpoint, sustained chronic T cell proliferation, IFNγ production, and B cell activation eventually led to the development of enhanced pathologies in a Th1-driven T cell-transfer model of autoimmune arthritis.


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Petr75
Family Elder
Posts: 641
Joined: Sat Oct 19, 2013 10:17 am
Location: Czech Republic

Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:25 am

2020 Jan 17
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
The progress of gut microbiome research related to brain disorders
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31952509

Abstract

There is increasing evidence showing that the dynamic changes in the gut microbiota can alter brain physiology and behavior. Cognition was originally thought to be regulated only by the central nervous system. However, it is now becoming clear that many non-nervous system factors, including the gut-resident bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract, regulate and influence cognitive dysfunction as well as the process of neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular diseases. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors including dietary habits can regulate the composition of the microbiota. Microbes release metabolites and microbiota-derived molecules to further trigger host-derived cytokines and inflammation in the central nervous system, which contribute greatly to the pathogenesis of host brain disorders such as pain, depression, anxiety, autism, Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Change of blood-brain barrier permeability, brain vascular physiology, and brain structure are among the most critical causes of the development of downstream neurological dysfunction. In this review, we will discuss the following parts: Overview of technical approaches used in gut microbiome studiesMicrobiota and immunityGut microbiota and metabolitesMicrobiota-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunctionNeuropsychiatric diseases ■ Stress and depression■ Pain and migraine■ Autism spectrum disordersNeurodegenerative diseases ■ Parkinson's disease■ Alzheimer's disease■ Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis■ Multiple sclerosisCerebrovascular disease ■ Atherosclerosis■ Stroke■ Arteriovenous malformationConclusions and perspectives.

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Petr75
Family Elder
Posts: 641
Joined: Sat Oct 19, 2013 10:17 am
Location: Czech Republic

Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Wed Feb 12, 2020 12:22 pm

2020 Jan 21
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
Relationships Between Vitamin D, Gut Microbiome, and Systemic Autoimmunity
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203864 ... oimmunity/

Abstract

There is increasing recognition of the role the microbiome plays in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies in systemic autoimmune diseases demonstrate unique microbial patterns in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus to a lesser extent, whereas there is no single bug or pattern that characterizes Multiple Sclerosis. Autoimmune diseases tend to share a predisposition for vitamin D deficiency, which alters the microbiome and integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the influence of intestinal bacteria on the immune system, explore the microbial patterns that have emerged from studies on autoimmune diseases, and discuss how vitamin D deficiency may contribute to autoimmunity via its effects on the intestinal barrier function, microbiome composition, and/or direct effects on immune responses.



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