PM10

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Petr75
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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Mon Oct 28, 2019 12:11 pm

2019 Aug 27
Institut für Geobotanik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hanover , Germany.
School of Agriculture, Ningxia University , Yinchuan , Ningxia Hui , China.
Reduction of traffic-related particulate matter by roadside plants: effect of traffic pressure and sampling height.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31452387

Abstract
Atmospheric particulate matters (PM) caused by urban traffic system put residents' health at serious risk. As a method of phytoremediation to mitigate this risk, roadside plants show significant potential to remove PM from the air. However, the relationship between traffic pressure, height, and leaves' capturing capacity is rarely reported. In this study, two common effective roadside plants (Hedera helix, Taxus baccata) with typical leaf shapes (broad and needle-leaved) were selected to explore the foliage capacity under high, middle and low traffic burden. A green wall covered by H. helix was tested to find out the relationship between heights and the amount of accumulated PM. Although the PM capturing capacity varied between different traffic pressures, needle-leaved species generally accumulated more PM than broad-leaved species. For PM10 capturing, needle-leaved species showed higher capacity under all traffic pressures except under the low traffic pressure. For PM2.5 capturing, needle-leaved species accumulated more PM only under the high traffic pressure. Needle-leaved plants were more sensitive to the change of traffic pressures, its PM capturing capacity changed notably between different traffic pressures because its leaf wax is more susceptible to be corroded. Leaf surface contact angle was slightly affected by the change of traffic pressure for broad-leaved species, but for needle-leaved species, it changed greatly. Leaf surface was the main zone for large PM capturing because the large PM was more likely to be stuck in grooves on the leaf surface, while leaf wax was mainly for fine PM absorption because PM with small sizes could adhere to the surface of the wax crystal. By comparing the amount of captured PM by leaf surface of urban roadside plants under different traffic pressures and height ranges, this study optimizes the benefits of roadside plants as traffic-related PM filter under different traffic conditions.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Sat Nov 02, 2019 2:18 am

2019 Aug 14
Department of Medical Microbiology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands
Cell Type- and Exposure-Specific Modulation of CD63/CD81-Positive and Tissue Factor-Positive Extracellular Vesicle Release in response to Respiratory Toxicants
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710792/

Abstract
Chronic exposure to respiratory stressors increases the risk for pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previously, we have shown that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) triggers the release of CD63+CD81+ and tissue factor (TF)+ procoagulant extracellular vesicles (EVs) by bronchial epithelial cells via depletion of cell surface thiols. Here, we hypothesized that this represents a universal response for different pulmonary cell types and respiratory exposures. Using bead-based flow cytometry, we found that bronchial epithelial cells and pulmonary fibroblasts, but not pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells or macrophages, release CD63+CD81+ and TF+ EVs in response to CSE. Cell surface thiols decreased in all cell types upon CSE exposure, whereas depletion of cell surface thiols using bacitracin only triggered EV release by epithelial cells and fibroblasts. The thiol-antioxidant NAC prevented the EV induction by CSE in epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Exposure of epithelial cells to occupational silica nanoparticles and particulate matter (PM) from outdoor air pollution also enhanced EV release. Cell surface thiols were mildly decreased and NAC partly prevented the EV induction for PM10, but not for silica and PM2.5. Taken together, induction of procoagulant EVs is a cell type-specific response to CSE. Moreover, induction of CD63+CD81+ and TF+ EVs in bronchial epithelial cells appears to be a universal response to various respiratory stressors. TF+ EVs may serve as biomarkers of exposure and/or risk in response to respiratory exposures and may help to guide preventive treatment decisions.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Sat Nov 02, 2019 11:45 pm

2019 Sep 2
Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Paris, France
Impacts on human mortality due to reductions in PM10 concentrations through different traffic scenarios in Paris, France.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31494426

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Air pollution is a well-known burden for population health and health systems worldwide. Reduction in air pollution is associated with improvements in mortality and rates of respiratory, cardiovascular and other diseases. Though air quality is a problem globally, efforts to lower air pollutant concentrations are usually regional or local. In industrialized countries, most urban air pollution is caused by vehicles, suggesting reductions in traffic would result in reductions of pollution. However, detailed data on how such reductions can be achieved and impact public health is just beginning to emerge, and other influencing factors, including vehicle flow or urban landscape are largely unaccounted for.
METHODS:
We utilized a unique combination of vehicle emission measurements combined with simulations of traffic and vehicle variations, as well as urban topographies, to quantify health impacts of PM10 reduction in a single district of Paris, France, for various methods of traffic improvement. Here we rank and evaluate improvements in non-accidental mortality for thirteen possible scenarios to reduce traffic related PM10 emissions.
RESULTS:
The maximum impact scenario requires all passenger vehicles to meet Euro 5 standards and excludes diesel vehicles, resulting in long-term decreases in non-accidental mortality of 148.79 people per year, or 104.40 per 100,000 people. Similar reductions hold for the scenario requiring a completely electric passenger fleet, with long-term annual reductions of 137.14 premature mortalities. Removing all diesel vehicles is the third most impactful scenario, preventing 135.55 deaths yearly.
DISCUSSION:
PARTLESS provides comparisons between thirteen different traffic-related air quality reduction mechanisms in terms of improvements in mortality rates. Improving emissions standards, increasing electric vehicle use and removing diesel vehicles can prevent more than 148 deaths per year in this district alone. Further improvements in mortality reduction may require changes to the composition of vehicle components, asphalt or to the management of resuspended particulate matter.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Fri Nov 15, 2019 9:43 am

2019
COSMAX BTI R&I Center
2'-Fucosyllactose Attenuates Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammation via Inhibition of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Keratinocytes.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31582650

Abstract
2'-Fucosyllactose (2FL) is the most abundant component of the oligosaccharide content in human milk. It has been reported that 2FL has the ability to protect against infectious disease caused by bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of 2FL on particulate matter (PM)10-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT keratinocytes. 2FL reduced PM10-induced excess expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1α and IL-1β in HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, PM10 also increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels; however, 2FL inhibited the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt stimulated by PM10. Furthermore, 2FL improved PM10-induced the decrease in epidermal thickness and integrity of the cornified layer in the reconstructed human epidermal skin model (RHE). In our results, 2FL inhibited PM10-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by regulating the HIF-1α/PI3K/Akt pathway and protected the skin epidermis against PM10 irritation. Taken together, these results suggest that 2FL can be used as a primary ingredient in cosmeceutical products to alleviate skin irritation and inflammation caused by urban air pollution.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Sat Nov 16, 2019 6:21 am

2019 Oct 7
Department of Family Medicine, Research Institute on Healthy aging, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801547/

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between ambient air pollutants and cognitive impairment in Korean older adults. The cognitive function of 2,896 participants aged 70 to 84 years was measured using the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination, the digit span test, the word list learning test, and the frontal assessment battery. After matching the average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) <10 μm in size (PM10) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5), NO2, CO, SO2, and O3 between 2013 and 2017, the association between air pollutants and cognitive scales was analyzed using a linear mixed regression and a multiple logistic regression analysis (after adjusting for age, sex, health related behaviors, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and meteorological data). Exposure to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO was associated with cognitive impairment above and beyond age or education level effects. Specifically, PM2.5 was negatively associated with most components of the cognitive scales (interquartile range for PM2.5: 2.0 μg/m3, odds ratio for poor global cognition: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.60-3.26). These associations may be affected by sex, residence area, or alcohol intake. Conclusively, air pollutants, especially PM2.5, were associated with cognitive impairment, including global cognition, attention, memory, and executive function in Korean older adults aged ≥70 years.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Wed Nov 20, 2019 12:26 am

2019 Dec
Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Environmental Health, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Associations of air pollution, obesity and cardiometabolic health in young adults: The Meta-AIR study
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31622905

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Growing evidence indicates exposure to air pollution contributes to obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk in children and adults, however studies are lacking in young adulthood, an important transitional period in the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of short- and long-term regional ambient and near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposures on adiposity and cardiometabolic health in young adults aged 17-22 years.
METHODS:
From 2014 to 2018, a subset of participants (n = 158) were recruited from the Children's Health Study to participate in the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study to assess obesity (body composition and abdominal adiposity) and cardiometabolic health (fasting glucose, fasting insulin and lipid profiles) measures. Prior 1-month and 1-year average air pollution exposures were calculated from residential addresses. This included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and NRAP (freeway, non-freeway, and total nitrogen oxides (NOx)) exposures. Linear regression models examined associations of prior 1-month (short-term) and 1-year (long-term) air pollution exposures on obesity and cardiometabolic factors adjusting for covariates and past childhood air pollution exposures.
RESULTS:
In the Meta-AIR study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis with short- and long-term regional ambient and NRAP exposures (in both single- and multi-pollutant models) and obesity- and cardiometabolic-related outcomes and found associations with a few outcomes. A 1 standard deviation (SD) change in long-term NO2 exposure was associated with a 11.3 mg/dL higher level of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) and 9.4 mg/dL higher level of low-density lipoproteins (LDL)-cholesterol (p = 0.04). Amongst obese participants, associations between long-term NO2 and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 4.5 and 9 times larger than the associations in non-obese participants (pinteraction = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Additionally, we observed a statistically significant association with increased short-term O3 exposure and higher triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol levels (p = 0.04), lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (p = 0.03), and higher hepatic fat levels (p = 0.02). Amongst glucose-related factors, long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher levels of insulin area under the curve (p = 0.03). There were no other statistically significant associations with short- or long-term air pollutants and BMI, other measures of adiposity, and cardiometabolic outcomes.
CONCLUSION:
Higher exposure to regional air pollutants, namely prior 1-year average NO2, was associated with higher fasting serum lipid measures. These associations were more pronounced in obese participants, suggesting obesity may exacerbate the effects of air pollution exposure on lipid levels in young adults. This study did not find any other associations between short- and long-term ambient and NRAP exposures across a range of other obesity and cardiometabolic indicators. Further studies in young adults are warranted as our study suggests potential deleterious associations of both short- and long-term air pollution exposures and lipid metabolism.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Fri Nov 22, 2019 3:24 am

2019 Nov 5
Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing, China
Air Pollution as a Cause of Obesity: Micro-Level Evidence from Chinese Cities.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31694267

Abstract
Chinese air pollution is obviously increasing, and the government makes efforts to strengthen air pollution treatment. Although adverse health effects gradually emerge, research determining individual vulnerability is limited. This study estimated the relationship between air pollution and obesity. Individual information of 13,414 respondents from 125 cities is used in the analysis. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) and multinomial logit model (m-logit) to estimate the impact of air pollution on obesity. We choose different air pollution and Body Mass Index (BMI) indicators for estimation. Empirical results show Air Quality Index (AQI) is significantly positively associated with the BMI score. As AQI adds one unit, the BMI score increases 0.031 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001). The influence coefficients of particle size smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), particle size smaller than 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the BMI score are 0.034 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001), 0.023 (SE = 0.001; p < 0.001), 0.52 (SE = 0.095; p < 0.001), 0.045 (SE = 0.004; p < 0.001), 0.021 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001), 0.008 (SE = 0.003; p = 0.015), respectively. Generally, air pollution has an adverse effect on body weight. CO is the most influential pollutant, and female, middle-aged, and low-education populations are more severely affected. The results confirm that the adverse health effects of air pollution should be considered when making the air pollution policies. Findings also provide justification for health interventions, especially for people with obesity.

----------------------------------------------------
MS

Published Thursday 13 November 2014
Obesity is a primary environmental factor sparking disorders like Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/285251.php

"We've been aware of a long list of causes of autoimmune disorders - infections, smoking, pesticides, lack of vitamins, and so forth. But in last five years, a new factor has emerged that cannot be ignored: obesity," said Prof. Shoenfeld. "According to the World Health Organization, approximately 35% of the global community is overweight or obese, and more than ten autoimmune diseases are known to be associated with increased weight. So it's critical to investigate obesity's involvement in the pathology of such diseases."

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Sun Nov 24, 2019 12:18 am

2019 Oct 18
Department of Global Health, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 115# Donghu Road, Wuhan, China; Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, China
Long-term effects of ambient air pollutants to blood lipids and dyslipidemias in a Chinese rural population.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31711721

Abstract
Both air pollution and dyslipidemias contributed to large number of deaths and disability-adjusted life lost years. Long-term air pollution exposure was related to changed blood lipids and risk of dyslipidemias. This study was designed to evaluate relationships between air pollutants, blood lipids and prevalence of dyslipidemias in a Chinese rural population exposed to high-level air pollution based on baseline data of The Henan Rural Cohort study. An amount of 39,057 participants from rural areas in China were included. The 3-year average exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2) was estimated by a spatiotemporal model. Logistic and linear regression models were employed to explore relationships between air pollutants, blood lipids (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) and prevalence of dyslipidemias. The three-year concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was 72.8 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 131.5 ± 5.7 μg/m3and 39.1 ± 3.1 μg/m3, respectively. Overall, increased air pollution exposure was related to increased TC and LDL-C, while decreased TG and HDL-C. Each 1-μg/m3 increment of PM2.5 was related to 0.10% (0.07%-0.19%) increase in TC, 0.63% (0.50%-0.77%) increase in LDL-C, 2.93% (2.70%-3.16%) decrease in TG, 0.49% (0.38%-0.60%) decrease in HDL-C; and 5.7% (95%CI: 3.7%-7.6%), 4.0% (95%CI: 2.1%-6.0%) and 3.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-5.1%) increase in odds for hypercholesterolemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, respectively. Stronger associations were found in male and older participants. Findings suggest that air pollutants were associated with changed blood lipid levels and higher risk of dyslipidemias among rural population. Male and elder people should pay more attention to personal safety protection.

................................................................................

MS

2019 Sep 26
Department of Neurology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
The correlation between dyslipidemia and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis patients
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31586799

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
A large number of multiple sclerosis [MS] patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction affecting their routine life in family and society. Investigating modifiable factors for cognition decline and controlling them, could improve the quality of life in MS patients. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the association between lipid profile components and cognition in MS patients.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients referred to Sina hospital, Tehran, Iran. The definite diagnosis of MS was done based on the revised McDonald criteria. Data on demographic and clinical data of patients were obtained. 5 cc blood samples were taken from all subjects after 10-hour night fasting, and lipid profile components including LDL, HDL, triglyceride, and total cholesterol were evaluated. The Persian version of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Functions in MS [MACFIMS] battery was administered to assess the cognitive function. Spearman and Pearson correlation tests were applied to investigate the correlation between lipid profile components and MACFIMS subtests or clinical features of MS patients.
RESULTS:
The mean age of subjects was equal to 32.26 years old, and 85% of them were women. There was no significant correlation between MACFIMS subtests results with disease duration, patient's disability according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), annual attack rate, and disease-modifying drug onset year (P value >0.05). A significant inverse correlation was found between greater serum total cholesterol and lower scores of Symbol Digit Modalities subtest [SDMT] (P value 0.02; r: -0.31), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System [DKEFS] sorting (P value 0.01; r: -0.34) and DKEFS-descriptive (P value 0.04; r: -0.28) subtests. This significant inverse correlation was also found in terms of the correlation between higher serum LDL and impairment in the case of DKEFS-sorting score (P value 0.05; r: -0.27), and DKEFS-descriptive score (P value 0.05; r: -0.27). No significant correlation was found in case of serum HDL or triglyceride and MACFIMS subtests (P value >0.05).
DISCUSSION:
Our findings proposed a possible correlation between the increased serum LDL cholesterol, serum total cholesterol and cognitive dysfunction among MS patients.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Tue Dec 03, 2019 12:37 am

Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Catalonia
Air quality, health impacts and burden of disease due to air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3): Application of AirQ+ model to the Camp de Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31759725

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact to human health of air pollutants, through the integration of different technics: data statistics (spatial and temporal trends), population attributable fraction using AIRQ+ model developed by the WHO, and burden of disease using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The levels of SO2, NO, NO2, O3, H2S, benzene, PM10, PM2.5, CO, benzo(a)pyrene and metals, obtained between 2005 and 2017 from the air quality monitoring network across Camp de Tarragona County, were temporally and spatially determined. Health impacts were evaluated using the AIRQ+ model. Finally, the burden of disease was assessed through the calculation of Years of Lost life (YLL) and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD). In general terms, air quality was good according to European quality standards, but it did not fulfil the WHO guidelines, especially for O3, PM10 and PM2.5. Several decreasing (NO, NO2, SO2, PM10 and benzene) and an increasing (O3) temporal trend were found. Correlation between unemployment rate and air pollutant levels was found, pointing that the economic crisis (2008-2014) was a factor influencing the air pollutant levels. Reduction of air pollutant levels (PM2.5) to WHO guidelines in the Camp de Tarragona County would decrease the adult mortality between 23 and 297 cases per year, which means between 0.5 and 7% of all mortality in the area. In this County, for lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to levels of PM2.5 above the WHO threshold limits, DAYLs were 240 years. This means around 80 DALYs for 100,000 persons every year -between 2005 and 2017. Population attributable fraction (PAF) and burden of disease (DALYs) methodologies are suitable tools for regional and national policymakers, who must take decisions to prevent and to control air pollution and to analyse the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

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2019 Nov 8
Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31761290

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 6:23 am

2019 Dec 3
Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
Air pollution significantly associated with severe ocular allergic inflammatory diseases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31796815

Abstract
Ambient air pollution is a well-recognized risk for various diseases including asthma and heart diseases. However, it remains unclear whether air pollution may also be a risk of ocular allergic diseases. Using a web-based, nation-wide, cross-sectional study design, we examined whether the level of ambient air pollution is significantly associated with the prevalence of ocular allergic diseases. A web-based questionnaire was posted to invite the participants who are members of the Japan Ophthalmologist Association and their family members. The answers from 3004 respondents were used to determine whether there were significant associations between the level of the pollutants and the prevalence of ocular allergic diseases. The study period was between March to May 2017. The data of the air pollutants during 2012 to 2016 were obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies. The prevalence of allergic diseases was calculated by post stratification and examined for significant associations with the level of pollutants using multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in Japan was 45.4%, 14.0%, 5.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. The high prevalence of the severe forms of allergic conjunctivitis, including AKC and VKC, were significantly associated with the levels of the air pollutants. The prevalence of AKC was significantly associated with the levels of NO2 with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (per quintile). The prevalence of VKC was significantly associated with the levels of NOx and PM10 with ORs of 1.72 and 1.54 respectively. The significant associations between the prevalence of AKC and VKC and the levels of air pollutants indicate that clinicians need to be aware that air pollutants may pose serious risks of vision threatening severe ocular allergy.

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Re: PM10

Post by Petr75 » Sun Dec 08, 2019 1:46 am

2019 Dec 1
Department of Urban Design and Studies, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea
The Impact of PM10 Levels on Pedestrian Volume: Findings from Streets in Seoul, South Korea
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31805695

Abstract
Although many studies have revealed that both air quality and walking activity are dominant contributors to public health, little is known about the relationship between them. Moreover, previous studies on this subject have given little consideration to the day-to-day atmospheric conditions and floating populations of surrounding areas even though most pedestrian count surveys are not conducted on a single day. Against this backdrop, using the 2015 Pedestrian Volume Survey data and quasi-real-time weather, air quality, and transit ridership data in Seoul, this study investigates the relationship between particulate matter (PM)10 and pedestrian street volumes empirically. The regression results suggest that PM10 concentration determines people's intention to walk and affects the volume of street-level pedestrians. The three regression models, which adopted different spatial aggregation units of air quality, demonstrated that PM10 elasticity of pedestrian volume is the largest in the borough-level (the smallest spatial unit of air quality alert) model. This means that people react to the most accurate information they can access, implying that air quality information should be provided in smaller spatial units for public health. Thus, strengthening air quality warning standards of PM is an effective measure for enhancing public health.

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