Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
Air Quality and Chronic Stress: A Representative Study of Air Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) in Germany.
With rising attention on climate change and the aftermath of burning fossil fuels, there is much concern regarding the effects of air pollution on physical and psychologic health. However, the relationship between chronic stress and air pollution is relatively unexplored in humans.
By combining German representative data with national pollution data and using step-wise regression analyses, this study investigates how air pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) impacts ones' chronic stress levels (TICS).
Results show PM2.5 fine-dust particles significantly affect chronic stress, while PM10 has no such effect. Air pollution (PM2.5), age and income together explain 3% of variation in chronic stress in a nationally representative sample.
Further studies must test pollutants such as NO2 and O3 as well as investigate the potential accumulated effect of pollution and stress combined on human health.
Department of Family Medicine, MyongJi Hospital, Hanyang University Medical Center, Korea
Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollutants and Cancer Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between main air pollutants and all cancer mortality by performing a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE (a biomedical and pharmacological bibliographic database of published literature produced by Elsevier), and the reference lists of other reviews until April 2018. A random-effects model was employed to analyze the meta-estimates of each pollutant. A total of 30 cohort studies were included in the final analysis. Overall risk estimates of cancer mortality for 10 µg/m³ per increase of particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, and NO₂ were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11⁻1.24), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04⁻1.14), and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02⁻1.10), respectively. With respect to the type of cancer, significant hazardous influences of PM2.5 were noticed for lung cancer mortality and non-lung cancer mortality including liver cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer, respectively, while PM10 had harmful effects on mortality from lung cancer, pancreas cancer, and larynx cancer. Our meta-analysis of cohort studies indicates that exposure to the main air pollutants is associated with increased mortality from all cancers.
Hard to believe but according to Google more than 5.5 million people worldwide are dying prematurely every year as a result of air pollution. (Most of these deaths are occurring in the rapidly developing economies of China and India. The main cause is the emission of small particles from power plants, factories, vehicle exhausts and from the burning of coal and wood. The data was compiled as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. Indoor pollution is also often caused from fuels burned indoors for cooking (typically in developing countries) and cause many, many deaths and a host of serious illnesses every year as well.
Epidemiology of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases Department, IPLESP, Medical School Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université and INSERM, Paris
Long-Term Effect of Outdoor Air Pollution on Mortality and Morbidity: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study for Metropolitan France
Short-term effects of air pollution are documented more than long-term effects.
We investigated 12-year impacts of ambient air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality at the departmental level in metropolitan France.
Daily air pollution data at 2-km resolution, including concentrations of particulate matter of 10 µm or 2.5 µm in diameter or less (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃), were accrued from the CHIMERE database for 1999 and 2000. Simultaneously, morbidity (hospitalizations) and mortality data were collected in 2012 using the ESPS (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale/Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey) survey data and the CepiDc (Centre d'Épidémiologie sur les Causes Médicales de Décès/French Epidemiology Centre on Medical Causes of Death) database. Based on Poisson regression analyses, the long-term effect was estimated. A higher risk of all-cause mortality was observed using CépiDc database, with a relative risk of 1.024 (95% CI: 1.022, 1.026) and 1.029 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.031) for a 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases likewise exhibited long-term associations with both PM2.5 and PM10. Using ESPS survey data, a significant risk was observed for both PM2.5 and PM10 in all-cause mortality and all-cause morbidity. Although a risk for higher all-cause mortality and morbidity was also present for NO₂, the cause-specific relative risk due to NO₂ was found to be lesser, as compared to PM. Nevertheless, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity were related to NO₂, along with PM2.5 and PM10. However, the health effect of O₃ was seen to be substantially lower in comparison to the other pollutants.
Our study confirmed that PM has a long-term impact on mortality and morbidity. Exposure to NO₂ and O₃ could also lead to increased health risks.
2018 Dec 27Petr75 wrote: ↑6 months ago
2017 Sep 27
Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Netherlands: A Population-based Case-control Study
Recently, there has been increasing evidence that exposure to air pollution is linked to neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about the association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Based on a large population-based case-control study, we report evidence for the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased susceptibility to ALS. Our findings further support the necessity for regulatory public health interventions to combat air pollution levels and provide additional insight into the potential pathophysiology of ALS.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea
Short-term air pollution exposure and emergency department visits for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A time-stratified case-crossover analysis.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease, eventually leading to respiratory failure. Although the only currently available therapeutic interventions merely slow the disease progression, few studies have examined risk factors associated with ALS exacerbation and progression.
To investigate the association between exposure to short-term air pollution and acute exacerbation of ALS requiring emergency department (ED) visit.
We identified from the national emergency database of Korea 617 patients who visited EDs in Seoul with ALS as a primary cause during the period 2008-2014. We estimated short-term exposure to particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5), particles <10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). We conducted a conditional logistic regression with a time-stratified case-crossover design to examine the association between ED visits for ALS and short-term exposure to interquartile range (IQR) increase and upper quartile levels of air pollutants on the day of the ED visit, compared to the control days matched to day of the week, month, and year.
The risk of ED visits for ALS was significantly associated with an IQR increase of PM2.5 [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.35], PM10 [OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.25], SO2 [OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41], and CO [OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.36]. Exposure to the highest quartiles of PM2.5 and PM10 showed higher associations with ED visits for ALS [OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.85 and OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.77].
We provide new evidence that exposure to short-term air pollution may increase the risk of acute exacerbation of ALS. Further studies are warranted to understand the underlying mechanisms.
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Serv, Rome, Italy
Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
Estimation of daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Italy, 2013-2015, using a spatiotemporal land-use random-forest model.
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major causes of death worldwide, with demonstrated adverse effects from both short-term and long-term exposure. Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in cities because of the lack of reliable spatiotemporal estimates of particles exposure in nonurban settings. The objective of this study is to estimate daily PM10 (PM < 10 μm), fine (PM < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM between 2.5 and 10 μm, PM2.5-10) at 1-km2 grid for 2013-2015 using a machine learning approach, the Random Forest (RF). Separate RF models were defined to: predict PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in monitors where only PM10 data were available (stage 1); impute missing satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data using estimates from atmospheric ensemble models (stage 2); establish a relationship between measured PM and satellite, land use and meteorological parameters (stage 3); predict stage 3 model over each 1-km2 grid cell of Italy (stage 4); and improve stage 3 predictions by using small-scale predictors computed at the monitor locations or within a small buffer (stage 5). Our models were able to capture most of PM variability, with mean cross-validation (CV) R2 of 0.75 and 0.80 (stage 3) and 0.84 and 0.86 (stage 5) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model fitting was less optimal for PM2.5-10, in summer months and in southern Italy. Finally, predictions were equally good in capturing annual and daily PM variability, therefore they can be used as reliable exposure estimates for investigating long-term and short-term health effects.