Regional variation of multiple sclerosis prevalence in Canada (2005)
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10. ... 05ms1192oa
Objective: To describe the regional distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Canada, controlling for age and sex. Methods: This study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a large general health survey (n=131,535) conducted in 2000/2001. Subjects aged 18 and over were included in the current analysis (n=116,109). The presence of MS was determined by self-report. Prevalence was computed in five regions (Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies and British Columbia). Logistic regression was used to compare regions and examine for confounding/interaction by age and sex. Results: The overall Canadian MS prevalence was 240 per 100 000 (95%CI: 210-280). Prevalence ranged from 180 (95%CI: 90-260) in Quebec to 350 (95%CI: 230-470) in Atlantic Canada. Logistic regression revealed no statistical difference between the odds of MS in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia adjusted for age and sex. The adjusted odds of MS in the Prairies and Atlantic regions were significantly higher than in the other regions combined, with odds ratios of 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1-2.4, p<0.01) and 1.6 (95%CI: 1.1-2.4, p<0.05) respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated similar prevalence in the nonaboriginal/nonimmigrant group (n=96 219). Conclusion: Results suggest that Canadian MS prevalence differs by region. If validated, these regional differences may facilitate investigation of environmental influences.
The rising prevalence and changing age distribution of multiple sclerosis in Manitoba (2010)
Objective: Several studies suggest an increasing prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Canada. We aimed to validate a case definition for MS using administrative health insurance data, and to describe the incidence and prevalence of MS in Manitoba, Canada.
Methods: We used provincial administrative claims data to identify persons with demyelinating disease using International Classification of Diseases 9/10 codes and prescription claims. To validate the case definition, questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected persons with an encounter for demyelinating disease, requesting permission for medical records review. We used diagnoses abstracted from medical records as the gold standard to evaluate candidate case definitions using administrative data.
Results: From 1984 to 1997, cases of MS using claims data were defined as persons with ≥7 medical contacts for MS. From 1998 onward, cases were defined as persons with ≥3 medical contacts. As compared to medical records, this definition had a positive predictive value of 80.5% and negative predictive value of 75.5%. From 1998 to 2006, the average age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence of MS per 100,000 population was 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7–12.0). The age-adjusted prevalence of MS per 100,000 population increased from 32.6 (95% CI 29.4–35.8) in 1984 to 226.7 (95% CI 218.1–235.3) in 2006, with the peak prevalence shifting to older age groups.
Conclusion: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Manitoba is among the highest in the world. The rising prevalence with minimally changing incidence suggests improving survival. This study supports the use of administrative data to develop case definitions and further define the epidemiology of MS.
Incidence and Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Americas: A Systematic Review (2013)
Background: The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies considerably around the world. No previous study has performed a comprehensive review examining the incidence and prevalence of MS across the Americas. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and assess the quality of studies estimating the incidence and/or prevalence of MS in North, Central and South American regions. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to January 2011. Search terms included ‘multiple sclerosis’, ‘incidence’, ‘prevalence’ and ‘epidemiology’. Only full-text articles published in English or French were included. Study quality was assessed using an assessment tool based on recognized guidelines and designed specifically for this study. Results: A total of 3,925 studies were initially identified, with 31 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined North American regions (n = 25). Heterogeneity was high among all studies, even when stratified by country. Only half of the studies reported standardized rates, making comparisons difficult. Quality scores ranged from 3/8 to 8/8. Conclusion: This review highlights the gaps that still exist in the epidemiological knowledge of MS in the Americas, and the inconsistencies in methodologies and quality among the published studies. There is a need for future studies of MS prevalence and incidence to include uniform case definitions, employ comparable methods of ascertainment, report standardized results, and be performed on a national level. Other factors such as sex distribution, ethnic make-up and population lifestyle habits should also be considered.
nice that marrie et al was one of the few 8/8s :)
pursue optimal self care at least as actively as a diagnosis
ask for referrals to preventive health care specialists eg dietitians
don't let suboptimal self care muddy any underlying diagnostic picture!
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