Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Cadmium-induced neurotoxicity: still much ado.
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that accumulates in living system and as such is currently one of the most important occupational and environmental pollutants. Cd reaches into the environment by anthropogenic mobilization and it is absorbed from tobacco consumption or ingestion of contaminated substances. Its extremely long biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans) and low rate of excretion from the body cause cadmium storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys) with a diversity of toxic effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, endocrine and reproductive toxicities. Moreover, a Cd-dependent neurotoxicity has been also related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. At the cellular level, Cd affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Among all these mechanisms, the Cd-dependent interference in DNA repair mechanisms as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species, seem to be the most important causes of its cellular toxicity. Nevertheless, there is still much to find out about its mechanisms of action and ways to reduce health risks. This article gives a brief review of the relevant mechanisms that it would be worth investigating in order to deep inside cadmium toxicity.
Selenium and zinc: Two key players against cadmium-induced neuronal toxicity
recall from earlier this yr
Zinc Status and Autoimmunity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
"...regarding zinc levels in ... patients with autoimmune disorders compared to control individuals, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed.
From 26,095 articles identified by literature search ... 62 satisfied the inclusion criteria.
...Zn concentration in both serum ... and plasma ... samples of autoimmune disease patients was significantly lower than in controls.
The data presented in our work... have proved to be extremely consistent in witnessing a deficiency of zinc in serum and plasma of patients compared to controls."
next, to dig in on the 62 articles and check out the combined mean zinc levels in all those control individuals....
take control of your own health.
pursue optimal self care, with or without a diagnosis.
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