Focus on the gut-brain axis

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Petr75
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Sun Feb 03, 2019 12:38 am

2019 Jan 11
Department of Child Health and Development, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences , Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) , Tokyo , Japan
Inflammatory bowel diseases and primary immunodeficiency diseases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30632919

Abstract
Recent advances in molecular biology have provided important insights into the genetic background of various inflammatory diseases. In particular, genome-wide association studies of inflammatory diseases have revealed genetic loci that play critical roles in the pathology of inflammation. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing analyses have also identified more than 300 causative genes for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Some genetic loci that are associated with inflammatory diseases are mutated in PIDs, suggesting close relationships between inflammation and PIDs. Inflammatory diseases for which genetic associations have been described include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Herein, I discuss about the genetic interactions between IBD and PIDs.

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Thu Feb 07, 2019 9:34 am

2019 Mar 15
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Gut microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30658292

Abstract
Gut dysbiosis, a primary factor behind various gastrointestinal disorders may also augment lipopolysaccharides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper cells and monocytes causing increased intestinal and BBB permeability via microbiota-gut-brain axis. Consequentially, accumulation of misfolded proteins, axonal damage and neuronal demyelination sets in, thus facilitating the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Studies revealed that intake of probiotics may help in the integrity of intestinal and BBB thus ameliorating the above neurodegenerative disorders. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders and possible intervention strategies.

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by 1eye » Thu Feb 07, 2019 2:34 pm

If you want to completely destroy your gut microbiome, try a good heavy course of antibiotics. I was on one for about three months when I was twelve. I'm now 65.
This unit of entertainment not brought to you by FREMULON.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Tue Mar 19, 2019 11:46 am

2019 Feb 15
Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
Gut microbiota-dependent CCR9+CD4+ T cells are altered in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30770703

Abstract
The mechanism underlying the progression of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), characterized by accumulating fixed disability, is yet to be fully understood. Although alterations in the gut microbiota have recently been highlighted in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, the mechanism linking the altered gut environment with the remote CNS pathology remains unclear. Here, we analyse human CD4+ memory T cells expressing the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and found a reduced frequency of CCR9+ memory T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SPMS relative to healthy controls. The reduction in the proportion of CCR9+ cells among CD4+ memory T cells (%CCR9) in SPMS did not correlate with age, disease duration or expanded disability status scale score, although %CCR9 decreased linearly with age in healthy controls. During the clinical relapse of both, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, a high proportion of cells expressing the lymphocyte activating 3 gene (LAG3) was detected among CCR9+ memory T cells isolated from the CSF, similar to that observed for mouse regulatory intraepithelial lymphocytes. In healthy individuals, CCR9+ memory T cells expressed higher levels of CCR6, a CNS-homing chemokine receptor, and exhibited a regulatory profile characterized by both the expression of C-MAF and the production of IL-4 and IL-10. However, in CCR9+ memory T cells, the expression of RORγt was specifically upregulated, and the production of IL-17A and IFNγ was high in patients with SPMS, indicating a loss of regulatory function. The evaluation of other cytokines supported the finding that CCR9+ memory T cells acquire a more inflammatory profile in SPMS, reporting similar aspects to CCR9+ memory T cells of the elderly healthy controls. CCR9+ memory T cell frequency decreased in germ-free mice, whereas antibiotic treatment increased their number in specific pathogen-free conditions. Here, we also demonstrate that CCR9+ memory T cells preferentially infiltrate into the inflamed CNS resulting from the initial phase and that they express LAG3 in the late phase in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Antibiotic treatment reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis symptoms and was accompanied by an increase in CCR9+ memory T cells in the peripheral blood. Antibodies against mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MADCAM1), which is capable of blocking cell migration to the gut, also ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Overall, we postulate that the alterations in CCR9+ memory T cells observed, caused by either the gut microbiota changes or ageing, may lead to the development of SPMS.

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Thu Mar 21, 2019 12:09 pm

2019 Feb 18
Department of human medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Brain Aging and Gut⁻Brain Axis.
full https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/2/424/htm

Abstract
In the last decade, the microbiome in general and the gut microbiome in particular have been associated not only to brain development and function, but also to the pathophysiology of brain aging and to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), depression, or multiple sclerosis (MS) ..

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Thu Apr 18, 2019 8:21 pm

2018 Jan
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Microbiome, Immunomodulation, and the Neuronal System.
PMC https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794710/

Abstract
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised. This decreased epithelial integrity can then lead to luminal products crossing the barrier, generating a systemic proinflammatory response. In addition to epithelial integrity, healthy intestinal commensals metabolize indigestible dietary substrates and produce short-chain fatty acids, which are bacterial metabolites that are essential for colonic health and regulating the function of the intestinal immune system. Intestinal commensals are also capable of producing neuroactive molecules and neurotransmitters that can affect the function of the vagus nerve. The observations that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with different diseases of the nervous system, suggests that cross-talk occurs amongst the gut, the nervous system, and the immune system.

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by NHE » Fri Apr 19, 2019 1:20 am

Petr75 wrote:
Thu Apr 18, 2019 8:21 pm
2018 Jan
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Microbiome, Immunomodulation, and the Neuronal System.
Free full text. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... le_601.pdf

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

Post by Petr75 » Tue Apr 23, 2019 11:16 am

2019 Mar 12
Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medic, Japan
Intestinal microbiome as a novel therapeutic target for local and systemic inflammation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30877020

Abstract
Recently, the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic inflammatory arthritis, asthma, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported to be related to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The contribution of special bacteria for the development of those diseases has been elucidated by disease animal models such as germ-free mice. Besides, the contribution by several bacteria for the pathogenesis of those diseases has been suggested by detailed analysis of the 16 small ribosomal subunit RNA (16S rRNA) from stool samples of the patients. Gut microbiota-targeted treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases such as fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and probiotics has been now reported. Though there are several issues to be understood, these treatments have been highlighted as an innovative approach to intractable systemic inflammatory disease. In the present review, recent reports regarding the relation between gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory diseases are discussed with treatments to target gut microbiota.

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