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Institute of Infection and Immunity of Huaihe Hospital, College of Physical Education, Henan University, China
Effects of moderate- versus high- intensity swimming training on inflammatory and CD4+ T cell subset profiles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence about experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, has been shown to modulate disease parameters within exercise intervention. However, these initial studies weren't carried out intensity of exercise in mice. This study explored the impacts of different-intensity swimming training on EAE mice. Female mice were given access to swimming with predetermined weight (moderated-intensity (ME) group is 0% body weight; high-intensity (HE) group is 4% body weight) for 6 weeks, were immunized to induce EAE and then continued swimming until sacrificed. Compared to non-exercise mice, ME training didn't affect EAE clinical symptoms and neuropathology. However, HE swimming attenuated EAE clinical scores, reduced infiltrating cells and demyelination of spinal cords. Analysis of CD4+ T cell subsets from CNS of EAE showed the reduction of Th1 and Th17 populations and an increase of Treg in HE, not ME mice. Accordingly, HE training lead to a decrease of IFN-γ and IL-17 and an increase of IL-10 and TGF-β. Of note, HE, not ME, swimming induced an increase of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the CNS of EAE. Moreover, HE training upregulated Treg and downregualted antigen-specific T cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 populations from draining lymph node cells. These results suggest that HE swimming training might have benefits on attenuating the progression and pathological hallmarks of EAE, thus representing an important non-pharmacological intervention for improvement of chronic inflammation or T-cell mediated autoimmunity.
The two things to note in this piece, achieved here by giving mice a sink or swim option, is exercise a) boosts brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and b) increases IL10.
There is actually quite a lot of studies that show exercise increases BDNF. In turn, higher BDNF boosts the anti-inflammatory interleukin called IL10. When IL10 goes up, MS exacerbations lessen.
It is the logical argument behind continuing to exercise towards fitness if you have MS. I quite understand that is very difficult for some, for a variety of reasons. Nonetheless, any activity will be better than doing nothing.
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