Iron

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Petr75
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Iron

Post by Petr75 » Thu Jan 31, 2019 12:09 am

2018 Dec 20
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
The Involvement of Iron in Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306469/

Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of acute and long-term pathophysiological sequelae that ultimately lead to cognitive and motor function deficits, with age being a critical risk factor for poorer prognosis. TBI has been recently linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases later in life including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and multiple sclerosis. The accumulation of iron in the brain has been documented in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and also in normal aging, and can contribute to neurotoxicity through a variety of mechanisms including the production of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and by promoting inflammatory reactions. A growing body of evidence similarly supports a deleterious role of iron in the pathogenesis of TBI. Iron deposition in the injured brain can occur via hemorrhage/microhemorrhages (heme-bound iron) or independently as labile iron (non-heme bound), which is considered to be more damaging to the brain. This review focusses on the role of iron in potentiating neurodegeneration in TBI, with insight into the intersection with neurodegenerative conditions. An important implication of this work is the potential for therapeutic approaches that target iron to attenuate the neuropathology/phenotype related to TBI and to also reduce the associated risk of developing neurodegenerative disease.

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Petr75
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Re: Iron

Post by Petr75 » Thu Jan 31, 2019 12:13 am

2018 Dec 18
Galway Neuroscience Centre, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
UPR Induction Prevents Iron Accumulation and Oligodendrocyte Loss in ex vivo Cultured Hippocampal Slices
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305600/

Abstract
The accumulation of iron within the brain occurs in many chronic disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Outside the CNS, a link between levels of iron and the unfolded protein response has already been established. To determine if such a relationship operates in within the brain, we used our ex vivo hippocampal slice-based model of iron accumulation. Ferrocene addition caused accumulation of iron within slices and loss of oligodendrocytes, an effect that was partially inhibited when ferrocene and ER stressor tunicamycin (Tm) were added together. An upward trend (not found to be statistically significant) in the expression of UPR transcripts in response to ferrocene was demonstrated using real-time PCR, while a significant upregulation of mRNA for B cell immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologous binding protein (CHOP) occurred following exposure to Tm. In silico analysis revealed consensus DNA-binding sequences for UPR-associated transcription factors within the promoter regions of eight iron-regulatory genes. In addition, dual-staining for CHOP and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) or Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) showed nuclear expression of CHOP in some oligodendrocyte-lineage cells in response to Tm or Tm+ferrocene, but CHOP was rarely found in microglia. Co-expression of UPR-associated activated transcription factor 6 (ATF6) was detected in the nuclei of some oligodendrocyte-lineage cells exposed to Tm alone, or to Tm and ferrocene, but rarely in microglia. These data highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting UPR-associated proteins when developing novel treatments for chronic brain disorders that are affected by dysregulated iron.

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