Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Calorie restriction promotes remyelination in a Cuprizone-Induced demyelination mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Over the past few decades several attempts have been made to introduce a potential and promising therapy for Multiple sclerosis (MS). Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary manipulation to reduce calorie intake which has been shown to improve neuroprotection and attenuate neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we evaluated the effect of 33% CR regimen for 4 weeks on the remyelination capacity of Cuprizone (CPZ) induced demyelination in a mouse model of MS. Results showed that CR induced a significant increase in motor coordination and balance performance in CPZ mice. Also, luxol fast blue (LFB) staining showed that CR regimen significantly improved the remyelination in the corpus callosum of CPZ + CR mice compared to the CPZ group. In addition, CR regimen significantly increased the transcript expression levels of BDNF, Sox2, and Sirt1 in the corpus callosum of CPZ mice, while decreasing the p53 levels. Moreover, CR regimen significantly decreased the apoptosis rate. Furthermore, astrogliosis (GFAP + astrocytes) and microgliosis (Iba-1 + microglia) were significantly decreased by CR regimen while oligodendrogenesis (Olig2+) and Sirt1 + cell expression were significantly increased in the corpus callosum of CPZ + CR mice compared to the CPZ group. In conclusion, CR regimen can promote remyelination potential in a CPZ-demyelinating mouse model of MS by increasing oligodendrocyte generation while decreasing their apoptosis.
Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells and Systems, Section Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands
Macroglial diversity: white and grey areas and relevance to remyelination
Macroglia, comprising astrocytes and oligodendroglial lineage cells, have long been regarded as uniform cell types of the central nervous system (CNS). Although regional morphological differences between these cell types were initially described after their identification a century ago, these differences were largely ignored. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that macroglial cells form distinct populations throughout the CNS, based on both functional and morphological features. Moreover, with the use of refined techniques including single-cell and single-nucleus RNA sequencing, additional evidence is emerging for regional macroglial heterogeneity at the transcriptional level. In parallel, several studies revealed the existence of regional differences in remyelination capacity between CNS grey and white matter areas, both in experimental models for successful remyelination as well as in the chronic demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we provide an overview of the diversity in oligodendroglial lineage cells and astrocytes from the grey and white matter, as well as their interplay in health and upon demyelination and successful remyelination. In addition, we discuss the implications of regional macroglial diversity for remyelination in light of its failure in MS. Since the etiology of MS remains unknown and only disease-modifying treatments altering the immune response are available for MS, the elucidation of macroglial diversity in grey and white matter and its putative contribution to the observed difference in remyelination efficiency between these regions may open therapeutic avenues aimed at enhancing endogenous remyelination in either area.
Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
EEF1A1 deacetylation enables transcriptional activation of remyelination
Remyelination of the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS and CNS, respectively) is a prerequisite for functional recovery after lesion. However, this process is not always optimal and becomes inefficient in the course of multiple sclerosis. Here we show that, when acetylated, eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) negatively regulates PNS and CNS remyelination. Acetylated eEF1A1 (Ac-eEF1A1) translocates into the nucleus of myelinating cells where it binds to Sox10, a key transcription factor for PNS and CNS myelination and remyelination, to drag Sox10 out of the nucleus. We show that the lysine acetyltransferase Tip60 acetylates eEF1A1, whereas the histone deacetylase HDAC2 deacetylates eEF1A1. Promoting eEF1A1 deacetylation maintains the activation of Sox10 target genes and increases PNS and CNS remyelination efficiency. Taken together, these data identify a major mechanism of Sox10 regulation, which appears promising for future translational studies on PNS and CNS remyelination.
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