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Epstein-Barr Virus and miRNAs

Posted: Mon May 20, 2019 6:46 am
by Petr75
2019 Apr 3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Epstein-Barr Virus and miRNAs: Partners in Crime in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis?

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression post transcriptionally. In healthy individuals, miRNAs contribute to maintaining gene expression homeostasis. However, the level of miRNAs expressed is markedly altered in different diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of such changes is being investigated, and thought to shape the immune system into the inflammatory autoimmune phenotype. Much is yet to be learned about the contribution of miRNAs in the molecular pathology of MS. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of MS. EBV encodes more than 40 miRNAs, most of which have been studied in the context of EBV associated cancers. These viral miRNAs regulate genes involved in cell apoptosis, antigen presentation and recognition, as well as B cell transformation. If EBV infection contributes to the pathology of MS, it is plausible that EBV miRNAs may be involved. Unfortunately, there are limited studies addressing how EBV miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of MS. This review summarizes what has been reported regarding cellular and viral miRNA profiles in MS and proposes possible interactions between the two in the development of MS.

Re: Epstein-Barr Virus and miRNAs

Posted: Wed May 22, 2019 1:09 am
by Leonard
Thank you Petr for this link.

The herpes virus causes MS, EBV is a herpes strain.

The recognition of the virus at cellular level is done by SNPs.
And likely via SNPs the miRNA is involved in B cell transformation.

The SNPs function within the miRNA and within miRNA targets.
As such, SNPs modulate miRNA or are associated with miRNA regulation.

The polymorphisms are the result of hundreds of millions of years of evolution.
Fish have some of the same polymorphisms as human beings, indicating they date back from the common root from a long time ago.
And a significant part of our cells have miRNA.

The overall picture may be found here: viewtopic.php?f=1&t=15188&start=885#p257234

Re: Epstein-Barr Virus and miRNAs

Posted: Sat Jun 08, 2019 2:11 am
by Petr75
2019 Apr 30
Centre for Immunology and Allergy Research, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Australia
Evidence from genome wide association studies implicates reduced control of Epstein-Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

Genome wide association studies have identified > 200 susceptibility loci accounting for much of the heritability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a memory B cell tropic virus, has been identified as necessary but not sufficient for development of MS. The molecular and immunological basis for this has not been established. Infected B cell proliferation is driven by signalling through the EBV produced cell surface protein LMP1, a homologue of the MS risk gene CD40.
We have investigated transcriptomes of B cells and EBV-infected B cells at Latency III (LCLs) and identified MS risk genes with altered expression on infection and with expression levels associated with the MS risk genotype (LCLeQTLs). The association of LCLeQTL genomic burden with EBV phenotypes in vitro and in vivo was examined. The risk genotype effect on LCL proliferation with CD40 stimulation was assessed.
These LCLeQTL MS risk SNP:gene pairs (47 identified) were over-represented in genes dysregulated between B and LCLs (p < 1.53 × 10-4), and as target loci of the EBV transcription factor EBNA2 (p < 3.17 × 10-16). Overall genetic burden of LCLeQTLs was associated with some EBV phenotypes but not others. Stimulation of the CD40 pathway by CD40L reduced LCL proliferation (p < 0.001), dependent on CD40 and TRAF3 MS risk genotypes. Both CD40 and TRAF3 risk SNPs are in binding sites for the EBV transcription factor EBNA2, with expression of each correlated with EBNA2 expression dependent on genotype.
These data indicate targeting EBV may be of therapeutic benefit in MS.