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Glia Cell

Posted: Mon Jul 01, 2019 8:31 am
by Petr75
2019 May 17
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain
Glial Cell AMPA Receptors in Nervous System Health, Injury and Disease

Glia form a central component of the nervous system whose varied activities sustain an environment that is optimised for healthy development and neuronal function. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) are a central mediator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission, yet they are also expressed in a wide range of glial cells where they influence a variety of important cellular functions. AMPAR enable glial cells to sense the activity of neighbouring axons and synapses, and as such many aspects of glial cell development and function are influenced by the activity of neural circuits. However, these AMPAR also render glia sensitive to elevations of the extracellular concentration of glutamate, which are associated with a broad range of pathological conditions. Excessive activation of AMPAR under these conditions may induce excitotoxic injury in glial cells, and trigger pathophysiological responses threatening other neural cells and amplifying ongoing disease processes. The aim of this review is to gather information on AMPAR function from across the broad diversity of glial cells, identify their contribution to pathophysiological processes, and highlight new areas of research whose progress may increase our understanding of nervous system dysfunction and disease.

Re: Glia Cell

Posted: Fri Jul 03, 2020 11:52 am
by Petr75
2020 Jun 6
Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California - Los Angel
Glia in Neurodegeneration: Drivers of Disease or Along for the Ride?


While much of the research on neurodegenerative diseases has focused on neurons, non-neuronal cells are also affected. The extent to which glia and other non-neuronal cells are causally involved in disease pathogenesis versus more passively responding to disease is an area of active research. This is complicated by the fact that there is rarely one known cause of neurodegenerative diseases; rather, these disorders likely involve feedback loops that perpetuate dysfunction. Here, we will review genetic as well as experimental evidence that suggest that non-neuronal cells are at least partially driving disease pathogenesis in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease.