Department of Neurology, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland
Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review of Current Knowledge and Impact of Immunotherapies
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3199171 ... therapies/
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CAD) has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This systematic review summarizes the evidence for the types and prevalence of CAD in MS patients, as well as its association with MS type, disease characteristics, fatigue and immunotherapies used to treat MS. The analysis revealed that CAD is correlated with pathophysiological processes of MS, can trigger serious cardiovascular complications that may reduce life expectancy, and may have implications for treatment with immunotherapies, especially fingolimod. Numerous mainly small case-control or cohort studies have reported various measures of CAD (particularly heart rate variation) in MS patients, showing higher rates of abnormality versus controls. A smaller number of studies have reported on cardiac autonomic symptoms in MS, including orthostatic intolerance/dizziness in around 50% of patients. CAD also appears to be associated with disease duration and to be more common in progressive than relapsing-remitting MS. However, although a substantial evidence base suggests that assessing CAD in people with MS may be important, standardised methods to evaluate CAD in these patients have not yet been established. In addition, no studies have yet looked at whether treating CAD can reduce the burden of MS symptoms, disease activity or the rate of progression.
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey
A Novel Role of Cardiac Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels Explaining Autonomic Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in a Cuprizone-Induced Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3208753 ... sclerosis/
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), believed to have an autoimmune etiology. MS patients showed an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk probably related to an impairment in the autonomic control of CV functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a key role in cardiac excitability by contributing to the repolarization phase of action potential and were recently identified as target of the autoantibody response in MS patients. Therefore, we investigated the role of cardiac Kir channels in the CV dysfunctions occurring in MS. Cardiac functions were evaluated by electrocardiographic recordings (ECG) in cuprizone-fed C57BL/6 mice, a classic demyelination animal model. Gene expression profiling of cardiac Kir2.2, Kir4.1 and Kir6.2 channels was performed using real-time PCR in mice. Cuprizone-induced mouse model was confirmed by immunohistochemistry analysis showing demyelination in the corpus callosum. ECG recordings from mice showed a significant decreased duration of the P wave and RR interval as well as an increase of the heart rate in cuprizone-treated mice as compared with the controls. Significant increased relative expression levels of Kcnj11 and Kcnj12, encoding for Kir6.2 and Kir2.2 channels respectively, were observed in mouse heart tissue, whereas no differences were found in mRNA levels of Kir4.1 channel as compared with controls. For the first time, these findings provided valuable insights into the potential role of Kir channels in cardiac problems associated with MS.
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction according to heart rate turbulence and variability in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by neurodegeneration or demyelination; the relapsing–remitting phase of MS is characterized by acute exacerbation of disease activity. The most commonly used noninvasive approach to assess autonomic function is the determination of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction using HRT and HRV parameters determined via 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in patients with relapsing–remitting MS without known heart disease.
Materials and methods:
The study included 26 patients diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. HRT and HRV parameters were analyzed via 24-h Holter ECG monitoring. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were reevaluated to identify any demyelinating lesions in the brain stem.
The HRV parameters of SDNNI (mean of the standard deviations of all normal sinus RR intervals in all 5-min segments), rMSSD (root–mean–square successive difference), and sNN50 (percentage of successive normal sinus RR intervals >50 ms) were significantly lower in the MS group than in the control group (P < 0.05).
This study revealed that the patients with MS had reduced HRV; this was demonstrated by dysfunction with regard to parasympathetic and sympathetic parameters in HRV analysis.
Cardiology Unit, University of Brescia and ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia
The brain-heart connection: a multiple sclerosis relapse presenting as Takotsubo Syndrome. A case report and literature review.
We hereby report a puzzling case of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse presenting as Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Female, 42-years old, who presented herself to the Emergency Room of University Hospital "ASST Spedali Civili" of Brescia, Italy, for a severe headache and a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiogram showed no signs of coronary atherosclerosis. Upon further neurological evaluation, a diagnosis of MS relapse, related to TTS, was made, and treatment was started accordingly. The patient was discharged after 12 days after the admission, free of symptoms, and without signs of neurological and cardiological active disease. A hallmark of TTS is its association with a preceding stressful event. It may also be connected to a wide variety of diseases, including neurological ones, such as stroke, intracranial bleeding, head trauma, migraine, and seizures. However, up to our knowledge, only few cases of MS-induced TTS were previously described. Whether it is plausible to consider TTS as an uncommon extra-neurological manifestation of MS is still debated, however all the evidence points in that direction, considering the central role of catecholamines in TTS pathogenesis. With this case report the authors hope to encourage research on this field and on the intricate topic of brain-heart connections.
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