all things vitamin D

Discuss herbal therapies, vitamins and minerals, bee stings, etc. here
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Petr75
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Location: Czech Republic

Re: all things vitamin D

Post by Petr75 » Wed May 29, 2019 8:44 am

2019 Apr 27
Department of Neurology, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Vitamin D increases glucocorticoid efficacy via inhibition of mTORC1 in experimental models of multiple sclerosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030237

Abstract
The limited efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) during therapy of acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to long-term disability. We investigated the potential of vitamin D (VD) to enhance GC efficacy and the mechanisms underlying this VD/GC interaction. In vitro, GC receptor (GR) expression levels were quantified by ELISA and induction of T cell apoptosis served as a functional readout to assess synergistic 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D)/GC effects. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG35-55 EAE) was induced in mice with T cell-specific GR or mTORc1 deficiency. 25(OH)D (25D) levels were determined in two independent cohorts of MS patients with stable disease or relapses either responsive or resistant to GC treatment (initial cohort: n = 110; validation cohort: n = 85). Gene expression of human CD8+ T cells was analyzed by microarray (n = 112) and correlated with 25D serum levels. In vitro, 1,25D upregulated GR protein levels, leading to increased GC-induced T cell apoptosis. 1,25D/GC combination therapy ameliorated clinical EAE course more efficiently than respective monotherapies, which was dependent on GR expression in T cells. In MS patients from two independent cohorts, 25D deficiency was associated with GC-resistant relapses. Mechanistic studies revealed that synergistic 1,25D/GC effects on apoptosis induction were mediated by the mTOR but not JNK pathway. In line, 1,25D inhibited mTORc1 activity in murine T cells, and low 25D levels in humans were associated with a reduced expression of mTORc1 inhibiting tuberous sclerosis complex 1 in CD8+ T cells. GR upregulation by 1,25D and 1,25D/GC synergism in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo were abolished in animals with a T cell-specific mTORc1 deficiency. Specific inhibition of mTORc1 by everolimus increased the efficacy of GC in EAE. 1,25D augments GC-mediated effects in vitro and in vivo in a T cell-specific, GR-dependent manner via mTORc1 inhibition. These data may have implications for improvement of anti-inflammatory GC therapy.

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Petr75
Family Elder
Posts: 359
Joined: Sat Oct 19, 2013 10:17 am
Location: Czech Republic

Re: all things vitamin D

Post by Petr75 » Thu May 30, 2019 8:39 am

2019 Apr 12
Myelin Maintenance and Peripheral Neuropathies, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France
Focus on 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the Peripheral Nervous System.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474301/

Abstract
In this review, we draw attention to the roles of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) in the trophicity of the peripheral nervous system. Calcitriol has long been known to be crucial in phosphocalcium homeostasis. However, recent discoveries concerning its involvement in the immune system, anti-cancer defenses, and central nervous system development suggest a more pleiotropic role than previously thought. Several studies have highlighted the impact of calcitriol deficiency as a promoting factor of various central neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Based on these findings and recent publications, a greater role for calcitriol may be envisioned in the peripheral nervous system. Indeed, calcitriol is involved in myelination, axonal homogeneity of peripheral nerves, and neuronal-cell differentiation. This may have useful clinical consequences, as calcitriol supplementation may be a simple means to avoid the onset and/or development of peripheral nervous-system disorders.

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