https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.10 ... -9762-6_22
Obstructive malformations of the internal jugular veins represent a relatively new clinical problem, which as of yet has not been fully understood. In normal subjects, the internal jugular vein is valveless, except for a single valve, situated just above the junction of this vein with the brachiocephalic vein. Usually, normal jugular valves exhibit a two-leaflet structure. Stenotic lesions of these veins were described for the first time in 2009 in a group of multiple sclerosis patients.
The most common obstructive malformation of the internal jugular vein is a stenotic valve. There are several morphological types of such aberrant valves, comprising annular stenoses, valves with fused, reversed, or abnormally located leaflets, septa and webs, and other malformations. Obstructive malformations not related to jugular valve, primarily hypoplastic segments of this vein, are also seen in some patients. Since such lesions compromise venous outflow from the central nervous system, they are referred to as chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Stenotic jugular valves and other obstructive malformations of the internal jugular veins, in addition to multiple sclerosis patients, can also be found in patients with other neurological diseases and even in healthy controls. For the time being, actual clinical relevance of these obstructive malformations remains elusive, but it is possible that these lesions may trigger neurodegeneration through the impairment of the glymphatic system of the brain.
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Posted in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI)by Cece » Sat Jul 13, 2019 12:16 pm » in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI)
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Vascular malformations masquerading as demyelinating disease. May be the explanation?
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