red blood cells have altered metabolism
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Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the main glucose transporter on RBCs, and all metabolism within theRBC involves glucose.RBC GLUT1 content was used as a measure of RBC metabolism, andelevated RBC GLUT1 content is proposed to be associated
with increased cell metabolism.RBCs obtained from MS patients contained 23.3± 4.8% more GLUT1 than control RBCs, while T1D RBCs
contained 23.6± 4.2% less GLUT1than control RBCs.Further studies evaluated the effects of various therapies on RBCs with respect to MS and T1D.
Steroids are commonly prescribed to MS patients to manage exacerbations of the disease;however,hyperglycemic conditions often result. Evidence presented here using measurements of RBC adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, suggests that the steroids estriol and prednisolone decrease RBC metabolism. ATP is a product of glycolysis, which utilizes the glucose transported into the cell to produce
While MS RBCs released104± 18nM more ATP than control RBCs, treatment with estriol or prednisolone
significantly decreased the RBC ATP release , thought to correlate to RBC metabolism. RBC ATP release stimulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production in vivo, which is detrimental at the high levels seenin MS due to its toxicity to the blood brain barrier.
Results presented here also suggest that RBCs treated with physiological levels of estriol or prednisolone significantly decrease the downstream endothelial NO production up to 30%, thought to correlate to decreased blood brain barrier damage in MS patients