IMPORTANT: Dysfunctional RNA‐binding proteins in MS
Neuronal RNA‐binding protein dysfunction in multiple sclerosis cortex
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ful ... acn3.51103
Neurodegeneration is thought to be the primary cause of neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dysfunctional RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs) including their mislocalization from nucleus to cytoplasm, stress granule formation, and altered RNA metabolism have been found to underlie neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Yet, little is known about the role of dysfunctional RBPs in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in MS. As a follow‐up to our seminal finding of altered RBP function in a single case of MS, we posited that there would be evidence of RBP dysfunction in cortical neurons in MS.
Cortical neurons from 12 MS and six control cases were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) and TAR‐DNA‐binding protein‐43 (TDP‐43). Seven distinct neuronal phenotypes were identified based on the nucleocytoplasmic staining of these RBPs. Statistical analyses were performed by analyzing each phenotype in relation to MS versus controls.
Analyses revealed a continuum of hnRNP A1 and TDP‐43 nucleocytoplasmic staining was found in cortical neurons, from neurons with entirely nuclear staining with little cytoplasmic staining in contrast to those with complete nuclear depletion of RBPs concurrent with robust cytoplasmic staining. The neuronal phenotypes that showed the most nucleocytoplasmic mislocalization of hnRNP A1 and TDP‐43 statistically distinguished MS from control cases (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively).
The discovery of hnRNP A1 and TDP‐43 nucleocytoplasmic mislocalization in neurons in MS brain demonstrate that dysfunctional RBPs may play a role in neurodegeneration in MS, as they do in other neurological diseases.