This study showed that quercetin increased interferon-gamma which is known to worsen MS.
- Inhibitory mechanism of five natural flavonoids against murine norovirus.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Jul 1;30:59-66.
BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses (HuNoV), which are responsible for acute gastroenteritis, are becoming a serious public health concern worldwide. Since no effective antiviral drug or vaccine for HuNoV has been developed yet, some natural extracts and their active components have been investigated for their ability to inhibit noroviruses. However, their exact antiviral mechanisms have not been investigated.
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the expression of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Mx, and zinc finger CCCH type antiviral protein 1 (ZAP), 2'-5' oligo (A) synthetase (OAS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 cells pre-treated with fisetin, daidzein, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin gallate (ECG) that have anti-noroviral activity.
STUDY DESIGN:Based on the antiviral activity of the five flavonoids, recently reported by our group, the expression of antiviral factors such as IFN-α, IFN-λ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Mx, ZAP, OAS, and iNOS was investigated in RAW 264.7 cells pre-treated with these flavonoids.
METHODS: Anti-noroviral effect was determined by performing a plaque assay on cells treated with the flavonoid. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with fisetin, daidzein, quercetin, EGCG, and ECG. Then, mRNA of IFN-α, IFN-λ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Mx, ZAP, OAS, and iNOS were measured by real-time RT-PCR. IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 proteins were measured by ELISA.
RESULTS: Pre-treatment with fisetin (50μM), fisetin (100μM), EGCG (100μM), quercetin (100μM), daidzein (50μM), and ECG (150μM) significantly reduced MNoV by 50.00±7.14 to 60.67±9.26%. The mRNA levels of IFN-α, IFN-λ, TNF-α, Mx, and ZAP were upregulated in RAW 264.7 cells pre-treated with fisetin, quercetin, and daidzein, but not in those pre-treated with EGCG or ECG. Regarding protein levels, IFN-α was significantly induced in cells pre-treated with fisetin, quercetin, and daidzein, whereas TNF-α was significantly induced only in cells pre-treated with daidzein.
CONCLUSION: Pre-treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with the five flavonoids inhibited MNoV by upregulating the expression of antiviral cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-λ, and TNF-α) and interferon-stimulating genes (Mx and ZAP).
- Oral flavonoids delay recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jul 15;70(2):220-8.
Flavonoids are food components that appear to have potential beneficial health effects. There is a range of in vitro studies supporting the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoids. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro flavonoids, including luteolin and apigenin, inhibit proliferation and IFN-gamma production by murine and human autoimmune T cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of oral flavonoids as well as of curcumin on autoimmune T cell reactivity in mice and on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. Continuous oral administration of flavonoids significantly affected antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma production by lymph node-derived T cells following immunization with an EAE-inducing peptide. Both luteolin and apigenin suppress proliferative responses as they did in vitro, whereas IFN-gamma production on the other hand was enhanced. Other flavonoids exerted differential effects on proliferation and IFN-gamma production. The effects of flavonoids and curcumin on EAE were assessed using either passive transfer of autoimmune T cells or active disease induction. In passive EAE, flavonoids led to delayed recovery of clinical symptoms rather than to any reduction in disease. In active EAE, the effects were less pronounced but also, in this case, the flavonoid hesperitin delayed recovery. Oral curcumin had overall mild but beneficial effects. Our results indicate that oral flavonoids fail to beneficially influence the course of EAE in mice but, instead, suppress recovery from acute inflammatory damage.
- Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids in neurodegenerative disorders.
Eur J Med Chem. 2018 Jun 10;153:105-115.
Neuroinflammation is one of the main mechanisms involved in the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and others. The activation of microglia is the main feature of neuroinflammation, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulting in the progressive neuronal cell death. Natural compounds, such as flavonoids, possess neuroprotective potential probably related to their ability to modulate the inflammatory responses involved in neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, pure flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, genistein, hesperetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or enriched-extracts, can reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2), down-regulate inflammatory markers and prevent neural damage. This anti-inflammatory activity is primarily related to the regulation of microglial cells, mediated by their effects on MAPKs and NF-κB signalling pathways, as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro data. The present work reviews the role of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting the potential therapeutic effects of flavonoids as a promising approach to develop innovative neuroprotective strategy.
- Quercetin and interferon-beta modulate immune response(s) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from multiple sclerosis patients.
J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Dec 15;205(1-2):142-7.
The study is aimed to determine the role of quercetin (3,3'4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavone), alone and in combination with human interferon-beta (IFN-beta), in modulating the immune response(s) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and from normal healthy subjects. PBMC proliferation in the presence or absence of these drugs was determined and the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha), and the ratio of cell migration mediator MMP-9, and its inhibitor, TIMP-1 were assessed in the culture supernatants. Quercetin reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of PBMC and modulated the level of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha released by PBMC in the culture supernatants. Quercetin reduced the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio via lowering MMP-9 production. Quercetin, when combined with IFN-beta, had additive effects in modulating TNF-alpha and MMP-9. These immunomodulatory responses to quercetin were similar between MS patients and healthy control (HC) subjects.
- Flavonoids inhibit myelin phagocytosis by macrophages; a structure-activity relationship study.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Mar 1;65(5):877-85.
Demyelination is a characteristic hallmark of the neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis. During demyelination, macrophages phagocytose myelin and secrete inflammatory mediators that worsen the disease. Here, we investigated whether flavonoids, naturally occurring immunomodulating compounds, are able to influence myelin phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro. The flavonoids luteolin, quercetin and fisetin most significantly decreased the amount of myelin phagocytosed by a macrophage cell line without affecting its viability. IC(50) values for these compounds ranged from 20 to 80 microM. The flavonoid structure appeared to be essential for observed effects as flavonoids containing hydroxyl groups at the B-3 and B-4 positions in combination with a C-2,3 double bond were most effective. The capacity of the various flavonoids to inhibit phagocytosis correlated well with their potency as antioxidant, which is in line with the requirement of reactive oxygen species for the phagocytosis of myelin by macrophages. Our results implicate that flavonoids may be able to limit the demyelination process during multiple sclerosis.
- Quercetin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen, ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by blocking IL-12 signaling through JAK-STAT pathway in T lymphocyte.
J Clin Immunol. 2004 Sep;24(5):542-52.
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th1 cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Quercetin (3,3'4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavone) is a flavonoid phytoestrogen that has profound anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we show that in vivo treatment of SJL/J mice with quercetin (i.p. 50 or 100 microg every other day) ameliorates EAE in association with the inhibition of IL-12 production and neural antigen-specific Th1 differentiation. In vitro treatment of activated T cells with quercetin blocks IL-12-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, TYK2, STAT3, and STAT4, resulting in a decrease in IL-12-induced T cell proliferation and Th1 differentiation. These findings highlight the fact that quercetin ameliorates EAE by blocking IL-12 signaling and Th1 differentiation and suggest its use in the treatment of MS and other Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.