Focus on the gut-brain axis

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NHE
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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Serum Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Associations With Inflammation in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls
Front Immunol. 2021 May 6;12:661493.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and neuroaxonal damage in the central nervous system. The etiology is complex and is still not fully understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that our gut microbiota and its metabolites influence the MS pathogenesis. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, are metabolites produced by gut microbiota through fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. SCFAs and kynurenine metabolites have been shown to have important immunomodulatory properties, and propionate supplementation in MS patients has been associated with long-term clinical improvement. However, the underlying mechanisms of action and its importance in MS remain incompletely understood. We analyzed serum levels of SCFAs and performed targeted metabolomics in relation to biomarkers of inflammation, and clinical and MRI measures in newly diagnosed patients with relapsing-remitting MS before their first disease modifying therapy and healthy controls (HCs). We demonstrated that serum acetate levels were nominally reduced in MS patients compared with HCs. The ratios of acetate/butyrate and acetate/(propionate + butyrate) were significantly lower in MS patients in a multivariate analysis (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis; OPLS-DA). The mentioned ratios and acetate levels correlated negatively with the pro-inflammatory biomarker IFNG, indicating an inverse relation between acetate and inflammation. In contrast, the proportion of butyrate was found higher in MS patients in the multivariate analysis, and both butyrate and valerate correlated positively with proinflammatory cytokines (IFNG and TNF), suggesting complex bidirectional regulatory properties of SCFAs. Branched SCFAs were inversely correlated with clinical disability, at a nominal significance level. Otherwise SCFAs did not correlate with clinical variables or MRI measures. There were signs of an alteration of the kynurenine pathway in MS, and butyrate was positively correlated with the immunomodulatory metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Other variables that influenced the separation between MS and HCs were NfL, ARG1 and IL1R1, D-ribose 5-phosphate, pantothenic acid and D-glucuronic acid. In conclusion, we provide novel results in this rapidly evolving field, emphasizing the complexity of the interactions between SCFAs and inflammation; therefore, further studies are required to clarify these issues before supplementation of SCFAs can be widely recommended.

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Aug 2
Center for Genetic Epidemiology and Genomics, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China
Novel microbiota-related gene set enrichment analysis identified osteoporosis associated gut microbiota from autoimmune diseases
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34338852/

Abstract

Introduction: Gut microbiota is now considered to be a hidden organ that interacts bidirectionally with cellular responses in numerous organs belonged to the immune, bone, and nervous systems. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationships between gut microbiota and complex diseases by utilizing multiple publicly available genome-wide association.

Materials and methods: We applied a novel microbiota-related gene set enrichment analysis approach to detect the associations between gut microbiota and complex diseases by processing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) data sets of six autoimmune diseases (including celiac disease (CeD), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)) and osteoporosis (OP).

Results: The family Oxalobacteraceae and genus Candidatus_Soleaferrea were found to be correlated with all of the six autoimmune diseases (FDR adjusted P < 0.05). Moreover, we observed that the six autoimmune diseases except PBC shared 3 overlapping features (including family Peptostreptococcaceae, order Gastranaerophilales and genus Romboutsia). For all of the six autoimmune diseases and BMDs (LS-BMD and TB-BMD), an association signal was observed for genus Candidatus_Soleaferrea (FDR adjusted P < 0.05). Notably, FA / FN-BMD shared the maximum number of overlapping microbial features (e.g., genus Ruminococcaceae_UCG009, Erysipelatoclostridium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG013).

Conclusion: Our study found that part of the gut microbiota could be novel regulators of BMDs and autoimmune diseases via the effects of its metabolites and may lead to a better understanding of the role played by gut microbiota in the communication of the microbiota-skeletal/immune-gut axis.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Aug 19
Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
Gut microbiome is associated with multiple sclerosis activity in children
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34409759/


Abstract

Objective: To identify features of the gut microbiome associated with multiple sclerosis activity over time.

Methods: We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing from stool of 55 recently diagnosed pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis patients. Microbiome features included the abundance of individual microbes and networks identified from weighted genetic correlation network analyses. Prentice-Williams-Peterson Cox proportional hazards models estimated the associations between features and three disease activity outcomes: clinical relapses and both new/enlarging T2 lesions and new gadolinium-enhancing lesions on brain MRI. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and disease-modifying therapies.

Results: Participants were followed, on average, 2.1 years. Five microbes were nominally associated with all three disease activity outcomes after multiple testing correction. These included butyrate producers Odoribacter (relapse hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.88) and Butyricicoccus (relapse hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.88). Two networks of co-occurring gut microbes were significantly associated with a higher hazard of both MRI outcomes (gadolinium-enhancing lesion hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Modules 32 and 33 were 1.29 (1.08, 1.54) and 1.42 (1.18, 1.71), respectively; T2 lesion hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Modules 32 and 33 were 1.34 (1.15, 1.56) and 1.41 (1.21, 1.64), respectively). Metagenomic predictions of these networks demonstrated enrichment for amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

Interpretation: Both individual and networks of gut microbes were associated with longitudinal multiple sclerosis activity. Known functions and metagenomic predictions of these microbes suggest the important role of butyrate and amino acid biosynthesis pathways. This provides strong support for future development of personalized microbiome interventions to modify multiple sclerosis disease activity.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Sep 15
Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, India
Gut dysbiosis, defective autophagy and altered immune responses in neurodegenerative diseases: Tales of a vicious cycle
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34536490/

Abstract

The human microbiota comprises trillions of symbiotic microorganisms and is involved in regulating gastrointestinal (GI), immune, nervous system and metabolic homeostasis. Recent observations suggest a bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain via immune, circulatory and neural pathways, termed the Gut-Brain Axis (GBA). Alterations in gut microbiota composition, such as seen with an increased number of pathobionts and a decreased number of symbionts, termed gut dysbiosis or microbial intestinal dysbiosis, plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. Clinical reports confirm that GI symptoms often precede neurological symptoms several years before the development of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Pathologically, gut dysbiosis disrupts the integrity of the intestinal barrier leading to ingress of pathobionts and toxic metabolites into the systemic circulation causing GBA dysregulation. Subsequently, chronic neuroinflammation via dysregulated immune activation triggers the accumulation of neurotoxic misfolded proteins in and around CNS cells resulting in neuronal death. Emerging evidence links gut dysbiosis to the aggravation and/or spread of proteinopathies from the peripheral nervous system to the CNS and defective autophagy-mediated proteinopathies. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in NDDs, and highlights a vicious cycle of gut dysbiosis, immune-mediated chronic neuroinflammation, impaired autophagy and proteinopathies, which contributes to the development of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We also discuss novel therapeutic strategies targeting the modulation of gut dysbiosis through prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics or dietary interventions, and faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in the management of NDDs.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Nov 25
Department of Neurology, Pukou Branch of Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital, Jiangsu, China
Intestinal flora and neurological disorders
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34841782/

Abstract

The human intestinal flora is a highly diverse ecosystem composed of trillions of bacteria. The imbalance of the flora is related to a variety of diseases. The intestinal flora interacts with the nervous system bidirectionally in many ways through the gut-brain axis. It causes neuroimmune inflammatory response, dysfunction of gut mucosa and blood-brain barrier, direct stimulation of the vagus nerve, spinal nerve of the enteric nervous system, and the neuroendocrine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, causing neurological disorders. The metabolites of the intestinal microbial community also play a role. This article summarizes the characteristics of the altered intestinal flora and intervention measures in autism spectrum disorder, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, neuromyelitis optica, hepatic encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, Huntington's disease and stroke. The current research on intestinal flora is still in its infancy, and very few studies were carried out on causality and the underlying mechanisms, which prevents the development of precise flora-based clinical intervention measures. It is expected the research on intestinal flora would lead to novel approaches for treatment of some neurological disorders.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Dec 2
College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Republic of Korea
Regulation of common neurological disorders by gut microbial metabolites
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34857900/


Abstract

The gut is connected to the CNS by immunological mediators, lymphocytes, neurotransmitters, microbes and microbial metabolites. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbiome exerts significant effects on immune cells and CNS cells. These effects frequently result in the suppression or exacerbation of inflammatory responses, the latter of which can lead to severe tissue damage, altered synapse formation and disrupted maintenance of the CNS. Herein, we review recent progress in research on the microbial regulation of CNS diseases with a focus on major gut microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan metabolites, and secondary bile acids. Pathological changes in the CNS are associated with dysbiosis and altered levels of microbial metabolites, which can further exacerbate various neurological disorders. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these gut microbial metabolites regulate inflammatory diseases in the CNS are discussed. We highlight the similarities and differences in the impact on four major CNS diseases, i.e., multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder, to identify common cellular and molecular networks governing the regulation of cellular constituents and pathogenesis in the CNS by microbial metabolites.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Dec
Department of Biology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, Washington
Microbiome Methods in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34870901/

Abstract

Microbiome composition studies are increasingly shedding light on animal models of disease. This paper describes a protocol for analyzing the gut microbiome composition prior to and after the induction of mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of the human neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). We also address and provide data assessing the impact of mice reared in different animal facilities on EAE induction. Furthermore, we discuss potential regulators of the gut-microbiome-brain axis (GMBA) in relation to neuroinflammation and implications on demyelinating disease states. Our results suggest that mice reared in different animal facilities produce different levels of EAE induction. These results highlight the importance of accounting for consistent environmental conditions when inducing EAE and other animal models of disease. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Study of the composition of the gut microbiome in the neuroinflammatory model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Basic Protocol 2: Experimental procedures for DNA extraction and microbiome analysis.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Dec 8
Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Whole gut virome analysis of 476 Japanese revealed a link between phage and autoimmune disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34880054/

Abstract

Objective: The relationship between autoimmune diseases and the gut microbiome has been intensively studied, and several autoimmunity-associated bacterial taxa have been identified. However, much less is known about the roles of the gut virome in autoimmune diseases.

Methods: Here, we performed a whole gut virome analysis based on the shotgun sequencing of 476 Japanese which included patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis and healthy control subjects.

Results: Our case-control comparison of the viral abundance revealed that crAss-like phages, which are one of the main components of a healthy gut virome, significantly decreased in the gut of the patients with autoimmune disease, specifically the patients with RA and SLE. In addition, Podoviridae significantly decreased in the gut of the patients with SLE. To understand how these viruses affected the bacteriome, we performed a quantitative virus-bacterium association analysis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-based virus-bacterium interaction analysis. We identified a symbiosis between Podoviridae and Faecalibacterium. In addition, multiple bacterial targets of crAss-like phages were identified (eg, Ruminococcus spp).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that the gut virome can affect our body either directly or via bacteria. Our analyses have elucidated a previously missing part of the autoimmunity-associated gut microbiome and presented new candidates that contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2021 Dec 9
Medicine (Neurology), University of British Columbia and The Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, Canada
The gut microbiota in pediatric multiple sclerosis and demyelinating syndromes
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34889081/

Interpretation: Gut microbiota community structure, function and connectivity, and not just individual taxa, are of likely importance in MS.

---------------------------------------------
2018 Sep 27
Urban air quality and associations with pediatric multiple sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30349849/

Conclusion: Out of several air pollutants examined, we show that fine particulate matter and three other criteria pollutants (SO 2, CO, and lead) were statistically associated with higher odds for pediatric MS.
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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The People’s Pharmacy interviews Justin and Erica Sonnenburg, authors of the book The Good Gut. They discuss several aspects of the microbiome and how it can be utilized to treat various conditions and also to maintain overall good health.

https://www.peoplespharmacy.com/article ... re-of-you/
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2022 Jan 31
Department of Internal Medicine - Geriatrics, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam University Medical Center (UMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands
Gut Microbiota Composition Is Related to AD Pathology
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35173707/

Abstract

Introduction: Several studies have reported alterations in gut microbiota composition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, the observed differences are not consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate associations between gut microbiota composition and AD biomarkers using machine learning models in patients with AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD).

Materials and methods: We included 170 patients from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort, comprising 33 with AD dementia (66 ± 8 years, 46%F, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 21[19-24]), 21 with MCI (64 ± 8 years, 43%F, MMSE 27[25-29]) and 116 with SCD (62 ± 8 years, 44%F, MMSE 29[28-30]). Fecal samples were collected and gut microbiome composition was determined using 16S rRNA sequencing. Biomarkers of AD included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-beta 1-42 (amyloid) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and MRI visual scores (medial temporal atrophy, global cortical atrophy, white matter hyperintensities). Associations between gut microbiota composition and dichotomized AD biomarkers were assessed with machine learning classification models. The two models with the highest area under the curve (AUC) were selected for logistic regression, to assess associations between the 20 best predicting microbes and the outcome measures from these machine learning models while adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, medication use, and MMSE.

Results: The machine learning prediction for amyloid and p-tau from microbiota composition performed best with AUCs of 0.64 and 0.63. Highest ranked microbes included several short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing species. Higher abundance of [Clostridium] leptum and lower abundance of [Eubacterium] ventriosum group spp., Lachnospiraceae spp., Marvinbryantia spp., Monoglobus spp., [Ruminococcus] torques group spp., Roseburia hominis, and Christensenellaceae R-7 spp., was associated with higher odds of amyloid positivity. We found associations between lower abundance of Lachnospiraceae spp., Lachnoclostridium spp., Roseburia hominis and Bilophila wadsworthia and higher odds of positive p-tau status.

Conclusions: Gut microbiota composition was associated with amyloid and p-tau status. We extend on recent studies that observed associations between SCFA levels and AD CSF biomarkers by showing that lower abundances of SCFA-producing microbes were associated with higher odds of positive amyloid and p-tau status.
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Clostridium sporogenesis

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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2022 Aug 15
Center for Precision Medicine Research, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, WI, United States
The gut microbiome molecular mimicry piece in the multiple sclerosis puzzle
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36045671/

Abstract

The etiological complexity of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated, neurodegenerative disease with multifactorial etiology is still elusive because of an incomplete understanding of the complex synergy between contributing factors such as genetic susceptibility and aberrant immune response. Recently, the disease phenotypes have also been shown to be associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, a dynamic reservoir of billions of microbes, their proteins and metabolites capable of mimicring the autoantigens. Microbial factors could potentially trigger the neuroinflammation and symptoms of MS. In this perspective article, we discussed how microbial molecules resulting from a leaky gut might mimic a host's autoantigen, potentially contributing to the disease disequilibrium. It further highlights the importance of targeting the gut microbiome for alternate therapeutic options for the treatment of MS.


PMC https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9420973/
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Re: Focus on the gut-brain axis

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2022 Oct 17
Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA
Mining the microbiota to identify gut commensals modulating neuroinflammation in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36253847/


Abstract

Background: The gut microbiome plays an important role in autoimmunity including multiple sclerosis and its mouse model called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Prior studies have demonstrated that the multiple sclerosis gut microbiota can contribute to disease, hence making it a potential therapeutic target. In addition, antibiotic treatment has been shown to ameliorate disease in the EAE mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Yet, to this date, the mechanisms mediating these antibiotic effects are not understood. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the gut-derived bacterial strains that drive neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis.

Results: Here, we characterized the gut microbiome of untreated and vancomycin-treated EAE mice over time to identify bacteria with neuroimmunomodulatory potential. We observed alterations in the gut microbiota composition following EAE induction. We found that vancomycin treatment ameliorates EAE, and that this protective effect is mediated via the microbiota. Notably, we observed increased abundance of bacteria known to be strong inducers of regulatory T cells, including members of Clostridium clusters XIVa and XVIII in vancomycin-treated mice during the presymptomatic phase of EAE, as well as at disease peak. We identified 50 bacterial taxa that correlate with EAE severity. Interestingly, several of these taxa exist in the human gut, and some of them have been implicated in multiple sclerosis including Anaerotruncus colihominis, a butyrate producer, which had a positive correlation with disease severity. We found that Anaerotruncus colihominis ameliorates EAE, and this is associated with induction of RORγt+ regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.

Conclusions: We identified vancomycin as a potent modulator of the gut-brain axis by promoting the proliferation of bacterial species that induce regulatory T cells. In addition, our findings reveal 50 gut commensals as regulator of the gut-brain axis that can be used to further characterize pathogenic and beneficial host-microbiota interactions in multiple sclerosis patients. Our findings suggest that elevated Anaerotruncus colihominis in multiple sclerosis patients may represent a protective mechanism associated with recovery from the disease.
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First fecal microbiota transplant pill

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