In his second study, Dr. Zamboni performed venous angioplasty on MS patients with coexistent CCSVI (as defined in his first study). Although the percentage of patients who were symptom-free was reported to have increased after venous angioplasty, the actual annualized relapse rate for the entire group remained unchanged. These findings, which appear somewhat contradictory, are likely explained by a small number of people having more relapses after intervention and / or by differences in the period of observation before and after the procedure. Nonetheless, the relapse outcomes do not clearly support a clinical benefit of venous angioplasty.
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