Based on the four CCSVI patterns described by Dr. Zamboni, only 14% had no azygous involvment.
Type A pattern (30%) is characterized by significant stenosis
of the proximal AZY or of one of the two IJVs, with a
compensatory contralateral IJV that appears with an
ample cross-sectional area; it was observed in 10 of 35
RR patients, in five of 20 SP patients, but never in PP
Type B pattern (38%) is characterized by significant stenoses
of both IJVs and the proximal azygous; it was
observed in 19 of 35 RR patients, in nine of 20 SP
patients, and in one of 10 PP patients.
Type C pattern (14%) is characterized by bilateral stenosis
in both IJVs, with a normal AZY system; it was observed
in four of 35 RR patients, in five of 20 SP
patients, but never in PP patients.
Type D pattern (18%) is characterized by the multilevel
involvement of the AZY and lumbar systems. Association
with the IJVs was observed in approximately 50%
and caused an additional obstruction in these patients.
It was observed in two of 35 RR patients, in one of 20
SP patients, and in nine of 10 PP patients.
A prospective open-label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
Paolo Zamboni, MD,a Roberto Galeotti, MD,a Erica Menegatti, RVT,a Anna Maria Malagoni, MD,a Sergio Gianesini, MD,a Ilaria Bartolomei, MD,b Francesco Mascoli, MD,a and Fabrizio Salvi, MD,b Ferrara and Bologna, Italy
JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY
Volume 50, Number 6