The history of angioplasty, which was adopted without (gasp) clinical trials-
Believe it or not, Andreas Gruentzig, the “father” of the modern double-lumen balloon catheter to treat clogged arteries, perfected and made his devices on his kitchen table in 1975. After conducting a few animal and human cadaver experiments, he performed his first coronary angioplasty using a “kitchen catheter” on a living person in 1977!
After presenting the results of his first four angioplasty cases at a meeting of the American Heart Association that same year, it is reported that his colleagues burst into applause, recognizing this breakthrough with a standing ovation. Thereafter, Gruentzig travelled the country, teaching his method to scores of other doctors.
Soon, angioplasty was in widespread use without having gone through (up to that time) a proper clinical trial!