Purpose: To determine the effects of vitamins and carotenoids on brain white matter lesions (WMLs), we examined the associations between WMLs with vitamin and carotenoid levels in Japanese middle-aged and elderly subjects. Subjects and methods: Four-hundred and sixty-nine healthy participants (male = 317; female = 152) that underwent medical examinations were examined. Deep white matter lesions (DWLs) were detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 39 subjects. We evaluated the effects of vitamin and carotenoid levels on DWLs via logistic regression analysis.
Results: Lower gamma-tocopherol levels were significantly associated with DWLs in all subjects. While lower gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were significantly associated with DWLs in males, lower delta-tocopherol levels were associated with DWLs in females. The associations between DWLs and lower gamma- and delta-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were independent of age, hypertension, or smoking. However, the associations between DWLs and lower alfa- tocopherol were not significant following adjustments for smoking. Conclusion: Lower carotenoid and vitamin levels were independently associated with cerebral DWLs in Japanese subjects.
Story: http://sciencealerts.com/stories/211066 ... sions.html
http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 012-0419-z (html)
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10 ... 012-0419-z (pdf)
Anyone know causes of lower levels of tocopherol?