"We have developed a model where we disturb blood flow in the carotid artery by partial ligation, and atherosclerosis appears within two weeks," he says. "This rapid progression allows us to demonstrate cause and effect, and to examine the landmark events at the beginning of the process."
Jo says that endothelial cells, which form the inner lining of blood vessels, are equipped with sensors that detect changes in fluid flow.
Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina.
But it also can mean:a pointed end or part where two curves meet
maybe that's what *cusp* means in this context?a fold or flap of a cardiac valve
Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps
the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina
reticular lamina a layer of the basement membrane, adjacent to the connective tissue, seen in some epithelia; it is of variable thickness and is composed of condensed connective tissue with a reticulum of collagen fibers.
1. A netlike formation or structure; a network.
basement membrane a sheet of amorphous extracellular material upon which the basal surfaces of epithelial cells rest; it is also associated with muscle cells, Schwann cells, fat cells, and capillaries, interposed between the cellular elements and the underlying connective layer.
layer; a thin, flat plate of a larger composite structure.
epithelium [ep″ĭ-the´le-um] (pl. epithe´lia) (Gr.)
the cellular covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities. It consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances. Epithelium is classified into types on the basis of the number of layers deep and the shape of the superficial cells.
ThisIsMA wrote:I wonder what the difference is between endothelium and epithelium. They sound like synonyms. Maybe endothelium is the type of epithelium that lines blood vessel walls?
In the news--- Newly discovered peptide, blocks remyelination!! Stopping this process repairs MS damage.
http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles ... tients.htm
What's this "new" peptide we want to block?
It's called endothelin-1 or ET-1, and it's released by the astrocytes maintaining the endothelial layer of your blood brain barrier.
We've known about ET-1 for years. It's not only found in MS.
Endothelin-1 is raised in situations where there is endothelial distress. When endothelial cells are hurt by ischemia and oxidative stress, and nitric oxide levels are low. ET-1 creates vasoconstriction, is pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and slows blood flow. Which would explain why it inhibits remyelination. Yet not one single press release on this exciting new MS discovery mentioned this important fact, or what causes ET-1 levels to be high in the first place.
As you might expect, plasma ET-1 levels are very high in ischemic stroke.
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/2 ... 4.full.pdf
ET-1 released by astrocytes is seen after subarachnoid hemorrhage
Serum levels of ET-1 are used as a marker of cerebral ischemia
And Endothelin 1 serum levels are through the roof in people with MS----
The plasma ET-1 levels were, on average, 224% higher in the patients with MS than in the controls (p < 0.005). The mean ET-1 levels (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) were 3.5 +/- 0.83 pg/mL (min 2.13, max 5.37 pg/mL) in patients with MS and 1.56 +/- 0.3 pg/mL (min 0.9, max 2.13 pg/mL) in healthy volunteers. Neither the different forms nor stages of MS had an influence on the results. The ET-1 level was also not correlated with the duration of the disease.
It simply means that endothelial dysfunction is a huge part of the MS disease process.
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