Combination therapy of lovastatin and rolipram provides neuroprotection and promotes neurorepair in inflammatory demyelination model of multiple sclerosis.Paintlia AS, Paintlia MK, Singh I, Skoff RB, Singh AK.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.
Drug combination therapies for central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) are gaining momentum over monotherapy. Over the past decade, both in vitro and in vivo studies established that statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) and rolipram (phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor; blocks the degradation of intracellular cyclic AMP) can prevent the progression of MS in affected individuals via different mechanisms of action. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of lovastatin (LOV) and rolipram (RLP) in combination therapy to promote neurorepair in an inflammatory CNS demyelination model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Combination treatment with suboptimal doses of these drugs in an established case of EAE (clinical disease score > or = 2.0) significantly attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and protected myelin sheath and axonal integrity in the CNS. It was accompanied with elevated level of cyclic AMP and activation of its associated protein kinase A. Interestingly, combination treatment with these drugs impeded neurodegeneration and promoted neurorepair in established EAE animals (clinical disease score > or = 3.5) as verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. These effects of combination therapy were minimal and/or absent with either drug alone in these settings. Together, these data suggest that combination therapy with LOV and RLP has the potential to provide neuroprotection and promote neurorepair in MS, and may have uses in other related CNS demyelinating diseases.
PMID: 18720408 [PubMed - in process]