Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 9;96(23):13427-31.
Running increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain structure that is important for memory function. Consequently, spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) were tested in groups of mice housed either with a running wheel (runners) or under standard conditions (controls). Mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells and trained in the Morris water maze. LTP was studied in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 in hippocampal slices from these mice. Running improved water maze performance, increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cell numbers, and selectively enhanced dentate gyrus LTP. Our results indicate that physical activity can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning.
Early determination and long-term persistence of adult-generated new neurons in the hippocampus of mice.
Development. 2003 Jan;130(2):391-9.
New neurons are continually generated in the adult hippocampus, but the important question, whether adult neurogenesis is transient or leads to the lasting presence of new neurons, has not yet been answered. Dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were investigated by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at several time-points 1 day to 11 months thereafter. BrdU-labeled neurons remained stable in number and in their relative position in the granule cell layer over at least 11 months. This finding implies that the addition of new neurons is not transient and that their final number and localization are determined early. By contrast, expression of immature markers beta-III-tubulin and doublecortin in BrdU-labeled cells, peaked early after division and was not detectable after 4 weeks. In transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the nestin promoter none of the BrdU/nestin-positive cells early after division expressed the mature marker NeuN, confirming that no dividing neurons were detected. These new data suggest that new neurons are recruited early from the pool of proliferating progenitor cells and lead to a lasting effect of adult neurogenesis.
Neurogenesis in the adult brain: new strategies for central nervous system diseases.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;44:399-421.
New cells are continuously generated from immature proliferating cells throughout adulthood in many organs, thereby contributing to the integrity of the tissue under physiological conditions and to repair following injury. In contrast, repair mechanisms in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have long been thought to be very limited. However, recent findings have clearly demonstrated that in restricted areas of the mammalian brain, new functional neurons are constantly generated from neural stem cells throughout life. Moreover, stem cells with the potential to give rise to new neurons reside in many different regions of the adult CNS. These findings raise the possibility that endogenous neural stem cells can be mobilized to replace dying neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, recent reports have provided evidence that, in some injury models, limited neuronal replacement occurs in the CNS. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms controlling adult neurogenesis and discuss their implications for the development of new strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
My opinion is, that exercise that produces endorphins would help. Now that I have researched LDN and have taken it for 3 years I truly believe that is the answer to exercise and MS. That is the mechanism behind the LDN therapy, endorphin production. Not all exercise creates endorphins.
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