most readers will already be aware that overuse of antibiotics (in spite of their acknowledged value) leads to antibiotic-resistant bacteria known in the media as 'superbugs'.
Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study
Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK.
zinc, a nutrient that is demonstrably low in ms patients, has antibacterial (antibiotic) action.
with particular reference to zinc and chlamydia:
Infectious Disease in the Aging: A Clinical Handbook
...nursing home residents with low serum zinc concentrations had an increased incidence and duration of pneumonia, an increased number of new antibiotic prescriptions and more days of antibiotic use than residents with normal serum zinc concentrations.
The common etiologies for pneumonia in older adults are dependent on the site of acquisition. The predominant pathogen in seniors in all sites is Streptococcus pneumoniae. ...common pathogens include ... Chlamydia pneumoniae ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in younger adults...
i have posted elsewhere on low zinc and resulting iron dysregulation. interesting links between C. pneumoniae and CCSVI:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12719605
Biological Trace Element Research
Volume 91, Number 2, 97-110
Interactions between Chlamydia pneumoniae and trace elements
A possible link to aortic valve sclerosis
Christina Nyström-Rosander, Ulf Lindh, Nils-Gunnar Ilbäck, Eva Hjelm, Stefan Thelin, Olle Lindqvist and Göran Friman
An association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. However, other factors may interact in the pathogenesis of valve sclerosis. Therefore, trace elements important for C. pneumoniae growth and host defense and markers of C. pneumoniae infection were studied in sclerotic valves and serum. Forty-six patients undergoing surgical valve replacement due to advanced aortic sclerosis were prospectively studied. Valves from 15 forensic cases with no heart valve disease and plasma from 46 healthy volunteers served as controls. C. pneumoniae was detected in 16/46 (34.8 %) sclerotic valves and in 0/15 forensic controls. IgG and IgA antibodies to C. pneumoniae were present in 54.3% and 26.1 % patients, respectively. In the patients’ valves, iron, magnesium, and zinc each correlated to calcium, a marker of the histopathological severity of disease. Patients showed 10- to 70-fold increases of these trace elements in valves and an increased copper/zinc ratio in serum. In a majority of aortic sclerosis patients, one of several markers of C. pneumoniae infection were detected and all patients had a disturbed trace element balance in valves and serum suggestive of active immune process and infection. The pattern of trace element changes was essentially similar regardless of positive makers of C. pneumoniae, suggesting a similar etiopathogenesis in both subgroups. The 20-fold increase in iron, essential for C. pneumoniae growth, in sclerotic valves suggests a new possible link to this infection in aortic sclerosis.
zinc and other chlamydia strains:http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/6/953
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 June; 27(6): 953-957
Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth in McCoy, HeLa, and human prostate cells by zinc.
S B Greenberg, D Harris, P Giles, R R Martin and R J Wallace Jr
Zinc salts (10(-4) and 10(-5) M) inhibited the number of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy, HeLa, and primary human prostate epithelial cell cultures. Addition of zinc salts 1 h before or 24 h after inoculation with C. trachomatis was found to inhibit growth. Both C. trachomatis serotype D and a lymphogranuloma venereum strain were inhibited by the zinc salts. Although the mechanism of inhibition is not known, the continued presence of the zinc appeared necessary for maximal effect. At the concentrations tested, zinc was not directly toxic to the McCoy cells. These results suggest that the levels of zinc in prostatic secretions may be sufficient to preclude the recovery of chlamydia in the diagnostic laboratory or to inhibit chlamydia from infecting the prostate in vivo.