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some routes to zinc inadequacy:
-excess gluten (gluten-free diets also help elevate serum zinc in both celiac patients and healthy controls.. will post study once i track it down).
Phytate and zinc bioavailability http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7712343
"This review discusses evidence from human studies on the effects of dietary phytate on zinc bioavailability. In vitro and animal experiments have implicated calcium as a potentiating factor because it reacts with phytate, and zinc binds to the precipitate. Magnesium also reacts similarly to calcium, but most studies have not considered this factor. Protein provides amino acids, some of which are able to desorb zinc from the precipitate and improve bioavailability. Some predictive ratios, derived from animal studies, have been directly applied to human studies. The studies reviewed included those on: zinc status of groups, apparent absorption of zinc in normal subjects and ileostomists, true absorption using a stable isotope, plasma tolerance, and the accumulation in the body of a radioisotope. It was concluded that detrimental effects of phytate could be demonstrated on zinc bioavailability, but that the studies had not been designed specifically to demonstrate whether the interactions found in animal studies also apply to humans. It is suggested that more targeted research is required before predictive ratios are used for humans."
more reasons for poor zinc status, from the NIHhttp://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-H ... fessional/
-chronic liver disease
-chronic renal disease
-sickle cell disease
-other chronic illnesses
-vegetarians (no meat, high phytate diet - this is what happened to me)
-pregnant and lactating women
-older infants who are exclusively breastfed
-people with sickle cell disease
the following info does not reference any research - if you're interested, micko, i can track down supporting researchhttp://www.arltma.com/CandidaDoc.htm
Zinc metabolism is closely related to Candida because 1) the zinc/copper balance is critical, and 2) zinc is required for many essential enzyme systems, including production of digestive enzymes and synthesis of all body proteins.
Deficiency of zinc is common for several reasons:
• Use of superphosphate fertilizers and hybrid crops have contributed to widespread zinc deficiency in all foods.
• Processing and refining further depletes foods of their zinc content. For example, zinc loss occurs in the conversion of whole wheat to white flour, in the conversion of sugar cane to white sugar, and in spraying of frozen and canned vegetables with EDTA to retain color.
• Foods, relatively low in zinc, such as chicken and fish are being increasingly substituted for higher-zinc foods such as beef and red meats. Soy protein, commonly substituted for beef, is low in zinc.
• Stress of any type results in zinc depletion.
• Zinc deficiency is accentuated if copper exposure is high, because of a copper-zinc antagonism. Copper exposure is higher today for several reasons:
– Birth control pills raise tissue copper levels by raising estrogen levels.
– Copper is absorbed from the Copper-7 intrauterine device.
– Water remaining in copper pipes, and consumption of high-copper foods such as soy, avocado, and chocolate are sources of copper.
– Stress causes copper levels to increase, by causing a zinc deficiency.
my approach: no meds so far - just nutrient-dense anti-inflammatory whole foods, and supplements where needed
info: www.whfoods.com, www.nutritiondata.com