I think zinc is not only lacking in patients with MS, I think it is also being dysregulated. And--the reason it is lacking is the same reason it is being dysregulated. Zinc is a heavy metal ion and it needs to be tightly controlled.
I believe you can trace every symptom and valid scientific finding in MS directly back to the missing enzymes DNase1 and protease. This can be done with zinc.
Zinc is very much associated with “high protein” foods. According to the National Institutes of Health Office for Dietary Supplements, the main source for zinc is animal–based protein foods, such as poultry, red meat, oysters, eggs, seafood, and milk (National Institutes of Health, 2011). The inability to break down these foods would account for the low levels of zinc found in MS.
Here is some study information on the connection to proteins and zinc absorption.
J. Nutr. May 1, 2000 vol. 130 no. 5 1378S-1383S
Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption
Protein-quantity and quality.
“…The amount of protein in a meal is positively correlated to zinc absorption (Sandström et al. 1980). When compiling results from several studies with humans to whom various protein sources and amounts had been administered, fractional zinc absorption increased in a linear fashion with increasing protein content (Sandström 1992). It should also be emphasized that protein is a major source of dietary zinc that results in an increased zinc intake with increased protein content of the meal. Thus, in general, increased dietary protein leads to increased zinc intake and a higher bioavailability of the zinc provided.
The type of protein in a meal will also affect zinc bioavailability. Animal protein (e.g., beef, eggs, cheese) has been shown to counteract the inhibitory effect of phytate on zinc absorption from single meals (Sandström and Cederblad 1980), but this may be due to amino acids released from the protein that keep the zinc in solution…”
[Notice the above study references amino acids found in the proteins that "keep zinc in solution". So, not only does zinc come from high protein foods, but the ability to properly bind it also comes from proteins.]
In the following study the researchers stated that their results suggest that mechanisms which govern zinc cellular availability, compartmentalization of zinc or the binding of zinc to cell surface membranes may be altered in patients with MS.
Ann Neurol. 1986 Dec;20(6):712-5.
Zinc in multiple sclerosis. II: Correlation with disease activity and elevated plasma membrane-bound zinc in erythrocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis.
Ho SY, Catalanotto FA, Lisak RP, Dore-Duffy P.
“…Results suggest that mechanisms which govern cellular availability, compartmentalization of Zn, or the binding of Zn to cell surface membranes may be altered in patients with MS, and that these mechanisms vary with disease activity.”
Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, zinc, like iron, is a heavy metal ion and must be carefully controlled. Heavy metal ions are toxic to cells. Our bodies take great care to make sure metals go only where they need to and in exactly the right amount.
Scientists have discovered that metals, such as zinc, have special “chaperone” proteins that safely escort the metal through the interior of the cell and deliver it to the specific site where it is needed. Zinc also has “binding proteins” to prevent it from accumulating within the cell and poisoning the cell. The essential amino acid histidine (which MS patients lack) is an essential component of zinc binding proteins, such as ZntR and Zur.
According to Thomas O’Halloran, professor of chemistry at Northwestern University, “The zinc regulatory system is so sensitive and finely tuned-at the femtomolar level-that the metal ions have no chance to float freely in the cell’s cytoplasm before they are bound up in ZntR or Zur. Free floating zinc just doesn’t exist” (Northwestern University, 2001).
Histidine is one of the essential amino acids found lacking in patients with MS. Without histidine the body would not be able to properly bind zinc. We know that patients with MS already lack one of the essential components to prevent zinc toxicity, but science doesn't fully understand the complexities involved in how the body protects itself from zinc, while at the same time benefiting from it.
The following study states that although zinc is an essential trace element, histidine (one of the binding proteins) is necessary to prevent zinc-induced neurotoxicity.
D-Histidine and L-histidine attenuate zinc-induced neuronal death in GT1-7 cells
Masahiro Kawahara,*a Yutaka Sadakane,b Hironari Koyama,c Keiko Konohac and Susumu Ohkawarac
Metallomics, 2013,5, 453-460
“Although zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element, excess Zn causes neuronal death following transient global ischemia and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia…both L-histidine and D-histidine exhibit the same neuroprotective activity…that histidine protects against Zn-induced neurotoxicity…”
In the following study the researchers found an association between “subnormal plasma histidine levels and impaired protein hydrolysis" in patients with MS.
(Altern Med Rev 2000;5(3):224-248.)
Transdermal histamine in multiple sclerosis,
part two: A proposed theoretical basis for its use.
George Gillson, MD, PhD,
Jonathan V. Wright, MD, Elaine DeLack, RN,
and George Ballasiotes, BSc, Pharm
“…Here we include preliminary findings on the impairments of digestion and assimilation in MS patients seen in a private clinic. Although only a small number of patients was surveyed, an association was found between impaired gastric acid production, impaired protein hydrolysis, and subnormal plasma histidine levels in patients with MS. Impaired digestion might, therefore, impair the ability of MS patients to synthesize histamine…Various mechanisms of action are suggested, including: enhanced gastric acid and pancreatic enzyme secretion…We also discuss the observed failure of digestive function in MS…”
By restoring your body's ability to digest proteins, you will be able to not only properly absorb zinc, but you will also be able to properly regulate it.