New research from the Washington University School of Medicine outlines how higher levels of the blood vessel receptor protein S1PR2 in women might be creating higher MS rates in women.
S1PR2 is a receptor which signals the endothelium (the cellular lining of our blood vessels). It tells the endothelium which cells and molecules can pass through into tissue. In the case of MS--this process affects the brain and spine. An overexpression of this receptor may be behind MS.
The research, conducted at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, found higher levels of a blood vessel receptor protein called S1PR2 in both female mice and women who were vulnerable to MS. What's more, S1PR2 was even higher in the parts of the brains of the women and mice that MS usually affects.
"It was a 'Bingo!' moment –- our genetic studies led us right to this receptor," senior author and associate professor of medicine at Robyn Klein, M.D., Ph.D., said in a statement. "When we looked at its function in mice, we found that it can determine whether immune cells cross blood vessels into the brain. These cells cause the inflammation that leads to MS."
Vascular researchers have been studying the role of the overexpression of S1PR2 in inflammation:
The endothelium, as the interface between blood and all tissues, plays a critical role in inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid, highly abundant in plasma, that potently regulates endothelial responses through interaction with its receptors (S1PRs). Here, we studied the role of S1PR2 in the regulation of the proadhesion and proinflammatory phenotype of the endothelium.
Two known causes of an overexpression of S1PR2 are hypoxic stress and obesity
more information and links to research
http://ccsviinms.blogspot.com/2014/05/w ... s1pr2.html