Tropospheric ozone

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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Tue Apr 24, 2018 8:43 am

2018 Mar 28
Trends in onroad transportation energy and emissions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29589998

Abstract
Globally, 1.3 billion onroad vehicles consume 79 quadrillion BTU of energy, mostly gasoline and diesel fuels, emit 5.7 gigatonnes of CO2, and emit other pollutants to which approximately 200,000 annual premature deaths are attributed. Improved vehicle energy efficiency and emission controls have helped offset growth in vehicle activity. New technologies are diffusing into the vehicle fleet in response to fuel efficiency and emission standards. Empirical assessment of vehicle emissions is challenging because of myriad fuels and technologies, inter-vehicle variability, multiple emission processes, variability in operating conditions, and varying capabilities of measurement methods. Fuel economy and emissions regulations have been effective in reducing total emissions of key pollutants. Real-world fuel use and emissions are consistent with official values in the U.S. but not in Europe or countries that adopt European standards. Portable emission measurements systems, which uncovered a recent emissions cheating scandal, have a key role in regulatory programs to ensure conformity between "real driving emissions" and emission standards. The global vehicle fleet will experience tremendous growth, especially in Asia. Although existing data and modeling tools are useful, they are often based on convenience samples, small sample sizes, large variability and unquantified uncertainty. Vehicles emit precursors to several important secondary pollutants, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols, which requires a multipollutant emissions and air quality management strategy. Gasoline and diesel are likely to persist as key energy sources to mid-century. Adoption of electric vehicles is not a panacea with regard to greenhouse gas emissions unless coupled with policies to change the power generation mix. Depending on how they are actually implemented and used, autonomous vehicles could lead to very large reductions or increases in energy consumption. Numerous other trends are addressed with regard to technology, emissions controls, vehicle operations, emission measurements, impacts on exposure, and impacts on public health.
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby ElliotB » Tue Apr 24, 2018 9:10 am

is nature or man harder on the atmosphere?

The planet is constantly releasing pollution and toxins into the atmosphere both above and below the surface. And always has.

How much energy in a volcanic eruption?

Volcanoes also release mind-boggling quantities of energy, though usually not quite on the scale of hurricanes (thankfully for those who live near!). But if we look at a well-known major volcanic eruption, the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, we find that: "In all, Mount St. Helens released 24 megatons of thermal energy, 7 of which was a direct result of the blast. This is equivalent to 1,600 times the size of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima" (U.S. Geological Survey).

But Mount St. Helens wasn't even at the top of the scale of Volcanic Explosivity Index. It was a class 5, and the scale goes up all the way to 8, which are called "mega-colossal" eruptions. These class 8 super-volcanos erupt extremely rarely (otherwise we wouldn't be here), but when they do, more than 1,000 cubic kilometers of rock and ash are ejected, the climate of the whole planet is affected for extended periods of time, and mass-extinctions can be expected. Now that is powerful! To get anywhere close to that kind of energy release, the U.S. and Russia would have to use their entire nuclear arsenals simultaneously, and even that might not be enough to compare depending on how long the volcanic eruption lasts.


Here is an interesting article from Scientific American:

Are Volcanoes or Humans Harder on the Atmosphere?

https://www.scientificamerican.com/arti ... or-humans/



Underwater vents release tremendous amount of pollution and toxins as well.

Yet life goes on...




My point? Tropospheric ozone has probably always been with us. Are your points on the matter accurate? Perhaps!
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Tue Apr 24, 2018 12:16 pm

- Life goes on, I have no doubt about it. Petr

- Ozone enhances the airway inflammation initiated by diesel exhaust https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 10600597X#

- Evolution of multiple sclerosis prevalence and phenotype in Latin America. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29649790
..Both, prevalence and incidence, are increasing.. (Why? I do not know. Volcals?)
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Thu May 24, 2018 1:08 pm

MS

2018 Apr 4
Stanford University School of Medicine, US
Hyaluronan in immune dysregulation and autoimmune diseases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29625181

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O3

2010 Dec 1
Duke University, Durham, US
Hyaluronan fragments contribute to the ozone-primed immune response to lipopolysaccharide.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21037098
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Fri May 25, 2018 8:23 am

MS

2018 Apr 20.
Department of Veterinary Sciences, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
Bovine spastic syndrome: a review.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29678888

Bovine spastic syndrome (BSS) was described for the first time in 1941. The disease occurs in various-maybe even all-cattle breeds and is a chronic-progressive neuromuscular disorder that commonly affects cattle of at least three years of age. Typical clinical signs of the disease are clonic-tonic cramps of the hindlimbs that occur in attacks. Since BSS does not recover, affected animals can only be treated symptomatically by improving welfare conditions and management factors, or with physical therapy or drugs. Although still not irrevocably proven, BSS is assumed to be a hereditary disease. Therefore, affected animals should be excluded from breeding, which negatively affects economics and breeding. Besides epidemiology, clinical signs, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, this review discusses genetic aspects and differences to the similar disease bovine spastic paresis. Furthermore, this review also picks up the discussion on possible parallels between human multiple sclerosis and BSS as a further interesting aspect, which might be of great interest for future research.

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O3

September 2005
Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina, Řím, Itálie
On the action of ozone on whole bovine blood
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 1005000947

Abstract

The reaction between whole bovine blood and ozone has been studied. The ozonization reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by using the B-band and the Q-bands of hemoglobin contained in the red blood cells. Ozone causes the destruction of the hemin prosthetic groups present in the hemoglobin of the red cells and the toxicological and medical implications of this fact are briefly discussed.

Although hemoglobin of the red cells appears to be the preferred target of ozone attack, there are other substrates in blood which are susceptible to ozonolysis reactions: fatty acids and cholesterol. The reaction between cholesterol and ozone was explored both polarimetrically and spectrophotometrically and it has been shown that this molecule also can be degraded by ozone in blood.
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Sat Jun 09, 2018 12:03 pm

MS
The Impact of Hemoglobin Levels on Multiple Sclerosis
https://www.specialtypharmacytimes.com/ ... -sclerosis
Findings from a recent study suggest that brain shrinkage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be linked to leaked hemoglobin protein in the blood. Hemoglobin transports iron and oxygen throughout the body via red blood cells.
Investigators believe that treatments lowering hemoglobin levels could potentially slow the progression of the disease, according to a study published by Wellcome Open Research.
"These are exciting but early results,” said lead author of the study Charles Bangham, PhD. “If further studies confirm them, they may suggest new avenues of treatment, and hopefully more options to offer patients in the future." ..
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Fri Jul 13, 2018 12:34 pm

October 2018
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada, ..
Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of multiple sclerosis: A population-based cohort study
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 5118303013

Highlights
•No associations of MS incidence with PM2.5 and NO2 were observed.
•There was a tendency for increasing MS incidence in relation to O3.
• Females exhibited a higher risk of developing MS in association with O3 than males.

..Conclusions
In this large population-based cohort, we did not observe significant associations between MS incidence and long-term exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 in adults in Ontario, 2001–2013.
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Re: Tropospheric ozone

Postby Petr75 » Sat Sep 08, 2018 5:20 am

MS

2018 Aug 22.
Center for Antibody Drug, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China
MicroRNA-mediated Regulation of Th17/Treg Balance in Autoimmune Disease.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30133700

Abstract
Th17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are two distinct T cell subsets which have opposite effects on immune functions. While Th17 cells are a key effector in the immune response and play critical roles in the development of autoimmunity and inflammation, Treg cells orchestrate the overall immune response and maintain peripheral immune tolerance by regulating the activity of the effector T cells. However, the developmental pathways for Th17 and Treg cells are reciprocally interconnected and there is a significant amount of plasticity between them. Disturbed Th17/Treg balance contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, like EAE and multiple sclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play an important role in regulating the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases through the modulation of Th17/Treg balance. This review will provide an overview of the dysregulated miRNAs and their functions in modulating the Th17/Treg balance in autoimmune diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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2018 Aug 9
Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Fossato di Mortara, Italy.
Changes in expression profiles of internal jugular vein wall and plasma protein levels in multiple sclerosis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30134823
CONCLUSIONS:
This study provides for the first time expression patterns of the IJV wall, suggesting signatures of altered vascular mRNA profiles in MS disease also independently from CCSVI. The combined transcriptome-protein analysis provides intriguing links between IJV wall transcript alteration and plasma protein expression, thus highlighting proteins of interest for MS pathophysiology.

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O3

2014 Jun 15
Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060009/

Abstract
Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying O3-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of genomic response to environmental insults and unstudied in relationship to O3 inhalation exposure. Our objective was to test whether O3 inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the human bronchial airways. Twenty healthy adult human volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 for 2 h. Induced sputum samples were collected from each subject 48 h preexposure and 6 h postexposure for evaluation of miRNA expression and markers of inflammation in the airways. Genomewide miRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis, and in silico predicted mRNA targets of the O3-responsive miRNAs were identified and validated against previously measured O3-induced changes in mRNA targets. Biological network analysis was performed on the O3-associated miRNAs and mRNA targets to reveal potential associated response signaling and functional enrichment. Expression analysis of the sputum samples revealed that O3 exposure significantly increased the expression levels of 10 miRNAs, namely miR-132, miR-143, miR-145, miR-199a*, miR-199b-5p, miR-222, miR-223, miR-25, miR-424, and miR-582-5p. The miRNAs and their predicted targets were associated with a diverse range of biological functions and disease signatures, noted among them inflammation and immune-related disease. The present study shows that O3 inhalation exposure disrupts select miRNA expression profiles that are associated with inflammatory and immune response signaling. These findings provide novel insight into epigenetic regulation of responses to O3 exposure.
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