Gut microbes and the brain

If it's on your mind and it has to do with multiple sclerosis in any way, post it here.

Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Thu Mar 22, 2018 2:18 am

Gut microbes and the brain: paradigm shift in neuroscience.
J Neurosci. 2014 Nov 12;34(46):15490-6.

    The discovery of the size and complexity of the human microbiome has resulted in an ongoing reevaluation of many concepts of health and disease, including diseases affecting the CNS. A growing body of preclinical literature has demonstrated bidirectional signaling between the brain and the gut microbiome, involving multiple neurocrine and endocrine signaling mechanisms. While psychological and physical stressors can affect the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota, experimental changes to the gut microbiome can affect emotional behavior and related brain systems. These findings have resulted in speculation that alterations in the gut microbiome may play a pathophysiological role in human brain diseases, including autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. Ongoing large-scale population-based studies of the gut microbiome and brain imaging studies looking at the effect of gut microbiome modulation on brain responses to emotion-related stimuli are seeking to validate these speculations. This article is a summary of emerging topics covered in a symposium and is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the subject.

Free full text
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Advertisement

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Thu Mar 22, 2018 3:40 am

An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system.
Cell. 2005 Jul 15;122(1):107-18.

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex ecosystem consisting of countless bacteria in homeostasis with the host immune system. Shaped by evolution, this partnership has potential for symbiotic benefit. However, the identities of bacterial molecules mediating symbiosis remain undefined. Here we show that, during colonization of animals with the ubiquitous gut microorganism Bacteroides fragilis, a bacterial polysaccharide (PSA) directs the cellular and physical maturation of the developing immune system. Comparison with germ-free animals reveals that the immunomodulatory activities of PSA during B. fragilis colonization include correcting systemic T cell deficiencies and T(H)1/T(H)2 imbalances and directing lymphoid organogenesis. A PSA mutant of B. fragilis does not restore these immunologic functions. PSA presented by intestinal dendritic cells activates CD4+ T cells and elicits appropriate cytokine production. These findings provide a molecular basis for host-bacterial symbiosis and reveal the archetypal molecule of commensal bacteria that mediates development of the host immune system.

Free full text
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Thu Mar 22, 2018 4:20 am

Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Cell. 2016 Dec 1;167(6):1469-1480.e12.

    The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology. Antibiotic treatment ameliorates, while microbial re-colonization promotes, pathophysiology in adult animals, suggesting that postnatal signaling between the gut and the brain modulates disease. Indeed, oral administration of specific microbial metabolites to germ-free mice promotes neuroinflammation and motor symptoms. Remarkably, colonization of αSyn-overexpressing mice with microbiota from PD-affected patients enhances physical impairments compared to microbiota transplants from healthy human donors. These findings reveal that gut bacteria regulate movement disorders in mice and suggest that alterations in the human microbiome represent a risk factor for PD.

Free full text
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Thu Mar 22, 2018 4:30 am

Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota.
J Autoimmun. 2010 May;34(3):J220-5.

    All mammals are born ignorant to the existence of micro-organisms. Soon after birth, however, every mammal begins a lifelong association with a multitude of microbes that lay residence on the skin, mouth, vaginal mucosa and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Approximately 500-1000 different species of microbes have highly evolved to occupy these bodily niches, with the highest density and diversity occurring within the intestine. These organisms play a vital role in mammalian nutrient breakdown and provide resistance to colonization by pathogenic micro-organisms. More recently, however, studies have demonstrated that the microbiota can have a profound and long-lasting effect on the development of our immune system both inside and outside the intestine. While our immune system has evolved to recognize and eradicate foreign entities, it tolerates the symbiotic micro-organisms of the intestine. How and why this tolerance occurs has remained unclear. Here we present evidence that the commensal microbes of the intestine actively induce tolerant responses from the host that coordinate healthy immune responses. Potentially, disruption of this dialogue between the host and microbe can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or Type I diabetes (TID). As a wealth of publications have focused on the impact of the microbiota on intestinal immune responses and IBD, this chapter will focus on the extra-intestinal impacts of the microbiota from development to disease and integrate the known mechanisms by which the microbiota is able to actively communicate with its host to promote health.

Free full text
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Fri Mar 30, 2018 12:26 am

Feeding the brain and nurturing the mind: Linking nutrition and the gut microbiota to brain development.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 17;112(46):14105-12.

    The human gut contains a microbial community composed of tens of trillions of organisms that normally assemble during the first 2-3 y of postnatal life. We propose that brain development needs to be viewed in the context of the developmental biology of this "microbial organ" and its capacity to metabolize the various diets we consume. We hypothesize that the persistent cognitive abnormalities seen in children with undernutrition are related in part to their persistent gut microbiota immaturity and that specific regions of the brain that normally exhibit persistent juvenile (neotenous) patterns of gene expression, including those critically involved in various higher cognitive functions such as the brain's default mode network, may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of microbiota immaturity in undernourished children. Furthermore, we postulate that understanding the interrelationships between microbiota and brain metabolism in childhood undernutrition could provide insights about responses to injury seen in adults. We discuss approaches that can be used to test these hypotheses, their ramifications for optimizing nutritional recommendations that promote healthy brain development and function, and the potential societal implications of this area of investigation.

Free full text
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Tue May 08, 2018 2:05 am

The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.
Sci Transl Med. 2014 Nov 19;6(263):263ra158.

    Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota-BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.

Free full text.
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm

Re: Gut microbes and the brain

Postby NHE » Sun Jun 03, 2018 2:11 am

Adjunctive probiotic microorganisms to prevent rehospitalization in patients with acute mania: A randomized controlled trial.
Bipolar Disord. 2018 Apr 25.

    OBJECTIVE: Immunological abnormalities play a role in the pathophysiology of mania and have been associated with relapse. Probiotic organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria modulate inflammation in humans and animal models. The trial examined whether the administration of probiotic organisms prevents psychiatric rehospitalizations in patients recently discharged following hospitalization for mania.

    METHODS: Patients hospitalized for mania (N = 66) were randomized after discharge to receive 24 weeks of adjunctive probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain Bb12) or adjunctive placebo in a parallel two-group design format. The effect of treatment group on the risk of rehospitalization was calculated using Cox regression models. The modulating effect of systemic inflammation was measured employing an inflammation score based on immunoglobulin levels directed at previously defined antigens.

    RESULTS: During the 24-week observation period there were a total of 24 rehospitalizations in the 33 individuals who received placebo and eight rehospitalizations in the 33 individuals who received the probiotics (z = 2.63, P = .009). Hazard functions indicated that the administration of the probiotics was associated with a significant advantage in time to all psychiatric rehospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10, .69; P = .007). Probiotic treatment also resulted in fewer days rehospitalized (mean 8.3 vs 2.8 days for placebo and probiotic treatment, respectively; χ2 = 5.17, P = .017). The effect of the probiotic treatment on the prevention of rehospitalization was increased in individuals with elevated levels of systemic inflammation at baseline.

    CONCLUSION: Probiotic supplementation is associated with a lower rate of rehospitalization in patients who have been recently discharged following hospitalization for mania.
User avatar
NHE
Volunteer Moderator
 
Posts: 4828
Joined: Sat Nov 20, 2004 4:00 pm


Return to General Discussion

 


  • Related topics
    Replies
    Views
    Last post

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users


Contact us | Terms of Service