walking adaptations

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walking adaptations

Postby dignan » Tue Aug 07, 2007 6:19 pm

This is an interesting discovery.

New research discovers independent brain networks control human walking

In a study published in the August issue of Nature Neuroscience, researchers at the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland found that there are separate adaptable networks controlling each leg and there are also separate networks controlling leg movements, e.g., forward or backward walking.

These findings are contrary to the currently accepted theory that leg movements and adaptations are directed by a single control circuit in the brain. The ability to train the right and left legs independently opens the door to new therapeutic approaches for correcting walking abilities in patients with brain injury (e.g., stroke) and neurological disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis).

Using a split-belt treadmill to separately control the legs, Kennedy Krieger researchers Dr. Amy Bastian and Julia Choi studied forty healthy adults and tracked each person’s ability to learn various walking exercises. Utilizing specialized computer software and infrared tracking devices placed on key joints, researchers found subjects could store different walking patterns for forward versus backward walking simultaneously, with no interference between the two, revealing that separate brain systems control the two directions of walking. Surprisingly, people could also walk easily with one leg moving forward and the other backward, a pattern referred to as “hybrid walking.” Adaptation of hybrid walking, in which varying speeds were applied to legs walking in opposite directions, was found to interfere with subsequent “normal” forward and backward walking.

The combined results demonstrate there are distinct brain modules responsible for right/forward, right/backward, left/forward and left/backward walking. Most significantly, these modules can be individually trained, which would be critical for rehabilitation focused on correcting walking asymmetries produced by brain damage.

“The notion that we can leverage the brain’s adaptive capacity and effectively ‘dial in’ the patterns of movement that we want patients to learn is incredibly exciting,” said Dr. Amy Bastian, senior study author and Director of the Motion Analysis Laboratory at the Kennedy Krieger Institute. “These findings significantly enhance our understanding of motor skills, effective therapeutic approaches and the true adaptive nature of the brain.”

The walking adaptations studied here represent a form of short term learning from practicing on this unusual treadmill. Investigators set different speeds for each belt of the treadmill causing subjects to walk in an abnormal limping pattern. However, within 15 minutes subjects adapted and learned to walk smoothly with a normal pattern and rhythm, as verified by computer models. This indicates that the phenomenon of brain plasticity can occur in short intervals. When subjects returned to normal conditions (same speed for the two legs), this adaptation caused an after-effect that resulted in a limp that lasted for five-to-ten minutes as they “unlearned” the correction. Regardless of how hard subjects tried, they were unable to stop this after-effect, because walking patterns are controlled by automatic brain systems that recalibrate themselves according to current conditions.

“As we understand more about the way the brain learns, relearns and adapts in relation to motor skills, physical therapy professionals have a vastly expanding toolbox from which to tailor therapeutic interventions,” explains Gary Goldstein, MD, President and CEO of the Kennedy Krieger Institute. “This study and other research from Kennedy Krieger’s Motion Analysis Laboratory provide a glimpse into the rehabilitative potential made possible through the pairing of our talented researchers and cutting-edge technologies.”

Past studies by Bastian and her colleagues have found that certain types of brain damage interfere with walking ability, while others do not. For example, individuals with damage to the cerebral hemispheres can adapt while those with damage to the cerebellum are rarely able to.

This body of work sheds light on the specificity of walking adaptations and demonstrates that patients with certain types of brain damage can store a new walking pattern in the short term. Based on these findings, Bastian’s goal is to learn how to make that pattern last for an extended period. Currently, Bastian is planning a study of stroke victims in order to test the long-term benefits of split-belt treadmill therapy. She is also studying children with more extreme forms of brain damage, including those that undergo a hemispherectomy, a neurosurgical procedure to treat seizures in which an entire half of the brain is removed. The initial findings are quite promising, showing that these children can adapt in the short term and improve their walking patterns. These and other similar studies are leading researchers down the path to more targeted, rational therapies for patients with brain injuries.

Source: Kennedy Krieger Institute

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Postby 2gentle » Wed Aug 08, 2007 10:40 am

This is great-thanks! Who even knew this could be done??
Every journey begins with a single step...Diane
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Postby euphoniaa » Thu Aug 09, 2007 5:15 am

New research discovers independent brain networks control human walking

Aha! Maybe I should try the treadmill after all!

I've been using a cane for a couple of years due to footdrop and balance issues. But I've also developed my own daily exercise routine, using every muscle in my body I can think of, that has really kept my muscles strong, especially my legs. The weird part is that I can barely walk a straight line on a flat surface without stumbling, but get me on stairs and my legs work perfectly.

I can pick up my cane and bound up and down 4 flights of stairs at work, but as soon as I get to a landing, down goes the cane and the person behind me runs smack into me. It's very obvious to me that there are completely different processes going on between the normal gait and climbing movements I make.

I keep telling people that I'd get a walker, but I don't know how I'd carry it up and down the stairs. :)

This post inspires me to tackle the only piece of exercise equipment that I've found too intimidating to try. I think I'll go back to my local health club and get one of the attendants to "spot" me on the treadmill until I get used to it and see what happens.

Thanks for the post.
Dx'd with MS & HNPP (hereditary peripheral neuropathy) 7/03 but must have had MS for 30 yrs before that. I've never taken meds for MS except 1 yr experiment on LDN. (I found diet, exercise, sleep, humor, music help me the most.)
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Postby ljm » Fri Aug 10, 2007 7:53 am

I've noticed same. I have minor balance issue, only apparent when I'm walking slowly. Running, climbing stairs, no.

I read the article below some time ago and it influenced me to try to try training better balance on my own, since I can't apparently get any physio, by hiking/running on challenging rough/uneven ground. Its at least strengthening my legs and core. There are also special running shoes with uneven surfaces on sole, they cost about $300 but I think its a great idea.

Cobblestones Improve Elderly Balance, Blood Pressure

Looking to lower your blood pressure and improve your balance? Try walking . . . on cobblestones. Researchers at the Oregon Research Institute first observed Chinese walking over traditional cobblestone paths for health reasons, and decided to build up a study around the phenomenon to see if they could scientifically measure its medical benefits. The findings were reported in a recent issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

The study involved 108 participants, all over the age of 60. One group walked for half an hour a day on a simulated cobblestone mat. Some wore socks, others were barefoot. The second group just walked on normal ground for an hour three times a week. The study lasted for four months, after which both groups claimed to feel better. Those who walked on the cobblestones also showed significant improvements in balance, mobility and blood pressure. The biggest surprise for researchers was how quickly these improvements occurred.

Why was this effective? Practitioners of cobblestone walking in China claim that the cobblestones stimulate “acupoints” (think acupuncture) in the soles of the feet. Researchers in this study believe that the answer lies more with the way we maintain balance. We do this using two complex methods called the vestibular system (residing in the inner ear) and the somatosensory system (connecting the skin and muscles). When we walk normally, the somatosensory system makes up about 70 percent of our balance control. On cobblestones or other uneven surfaces, that number is switched in favor of the vestibular system.

As we age, we lose receptors in our vestibular system, causing it to diminish. This study concluded that, by forcing the vestibular system to work on a regular basis, it was improved in seniors to the point where it not only gave a boost to balance, but also helped to lower blood pressure.
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