Hi. I'll do this sort of quickly, so it may not be the best correlations.
Aimspro (goat serum) increases levels of IL-4 (which IS part of the TH2 response, BUT there is controversy about whether IL-4 helps or hurts MS). I could probably do better with finding all of the substantive material on this, but for now this should do. (The intent of the exercise was for people to research this themselves.
Antegren inibits VCAM-1 and Alpha 4 integrin, thereby decreasing levels of IL-4.
I hope this helps. If you do a search, you can probably find more and perhaps better correlations than this (and perhaps even better ones). I'm doing this on the fly, as they say.
My good research on this is not with me here. (I came across this originally when I did my research regarding desipramine.)
J Exp Med. 2004 Oct 4;200(7):857-70. Related Articles, Links
Basophils Initiate IL-4 Production during a Memory T-dependent Response.
Khodoun MV, Orekhova T, Potter C, Morris S, Finkelman FD.
Dept. of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267. firstname.lastname@example.org
Experiments were performed to characterize and identify the cellular sources of the secondary interleukin (IL)-4 response to a T cell-dependent antigen.
Mice were primed by immunization with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig)D antibody (GaMD), which stimulates naive CD4(+) T cells to secrete IL-4 in 3-4 d. When challenged with goat serum 14 d after immunization, GaMD-primed mice generated an IL-4 response that exceeded the primary response by approximately 100-fold, started in <2 h, and lasted for 4 d. Studies with 4get mice, in which cells with an accessible Il4 gene express a green fluorescent protein (GFP), revealed CD4(+) memory T cells, natural killer T cells, basophils, mast cells, and eosinophils as possible rapid producers of IL-4.
GFP(+)CD4(+) T cells and basophils expanded more in the spleen than the other cell types during the primary response to GaMD. Quantitation of in vivo IL-4 production by the in vivo cytokine capture assay after individual cell types were selectively stimulated or deleted demonstrated that basophils and memory CD4(+) T cells account for most of the secondary IL-4 response, with basophils initiating that response through IgE/FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling but secreting IL-4 for <4 h and memory T cells secreting IL-4 within 4 h and continuing to secrete this cytokine for 4 d.
Immunobiology. 1996;196(4):449-62. Related Articles, Links
Down-regulation of Listeria monocytogenes-specific Th1 cytokine response by treatment of mice with goat antibody to mouse IgD.
Song F, Matsuzaki G, Nomoto K.
Department of Immunology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Injection of goat anti-mouse IgD antibody (G alpha M IgD) to mice has been shown to induce polyclonal IgG1 and IgE production by B cells and IL-4 production by goat Ig-specific T cells. Surface IgD crosslinking also activates function of B cells as antigen presenting cells. Although the G alpha M IgD treatment is a well established system for regulation of immune response against antigens that bind to B cell receptor, we found that the G alpha M IgD treatment also influences immune response against irrelevant bacterial antigen. The T cells from the G alpha M IgD-treated Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice showed increased IL-4 production and decreased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production against listerial antigen compared with those from control L. monocytogenes-infected mice. Interestingly, changes were also found in antigen presenting cells in the G alpha M IgD-treated mice. MHC class II expression of both B cells and macrophages decreased significantly in the G alpha M IgD-treated mice, suggesting cytokine induced by G alpha M IgD-treatment may suppress MHC class II expression and modulate APC function in the G alpha M IgD-treated mice. In accordance with the assumption, T cells from the G alpha M IgD-treated mice produced high amount of IL-4 and IL-10 in in vitro culture with goat serum which contain goat Ig.
These result suggest that G alpha M IgD treatment may modulate APC function in the G alpha M IgD-treated mice through Th2 type cytokine(s) produced by goat Ig-specific T cells, which results in changes of Th response against irrelevant antigen.
PMID: 9061384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Nov;4(11):1354-62. Related Articles, Links
PharmaMar USA, 320 Putnam Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. email@example.com
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to alpha 4 beta 1 integrin (VLA-4)
currently under development by Elan and Biogen for the treatment of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis. Phase II trials in both indications have been completed, and by December 2002 phase III trials in Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis had been initiated.
PMID: 14758775 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Drugs R D. 2004;5(2):102-7. Related Articles, Links
Natalizumab: AN 100226, anti-4alpha integrin monoclonal antibody.
[No authors listed]
Natalizumab [AN 100226, anti-alpha4 integrin monoclonal antibody, Antegren] is a humanised monoclonal antibody that blocks alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated leukocyte migration. Natalizumab is in phase III trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in North America and the UK, and for the treatment of Crohn's disease also in the UK. It may have potential in the treatment of other immune-related inflammatory disease. Elan Corporation intends to examine the potential of natalizumab in rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. 4beta1 integrin on circulating leukocytes binds to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which is expressed at high levels in the blood vessels in the CNS during exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. This allows leukocytes expressing alpha4beta1 integrin (very late antigen-4) to move from the peripheral blood into the CNS. Inflammatory proteins and other factors released from lymphocytes in the brain lead to the progression of symptoms.
A limitation of natalizumab is that it must be injected and cannot be administered orally. Scientists have transformed the large anti-alpha4 monoclonal antibody into much smaller, drug-like molecules suitable for oral administration. Protein Design Labs has granted a worldwide nonexclusive licence under its antibody humanisation patents to Elan Pharmaceuticals for natalizumab. Biogen Inc. has entered into an agreement with Elan for a worldwide exclusive collaboration to develop, manufacture and commercialise natalizumab for multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Development of natalizumab is also being funded, in part, by Axogen (acquired by Elan in 1999). In November 2003, Biogen and IDEC Pharmaceuticals merged to form Biogen Idec. Elan repurchased royalty rights on a package of products, including natalizumab, from Autoimmune Disease Research Company. Elan and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation signed an agreement to produce natalizumab in GTC's genetically engineered goats, which will express the compound in their milk. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation changed its name to GTC Biotherapeutics in June 2002; it is no longer a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation. Following discussions with the US FDA, Elan completed enrolment in a second phase III trial, involving approximately 420 patients with Crohn's disease. This Evaluation of Natalizumab as Continuous Therapy-2 (ENACT-2) trial evaluated the effect of natalizumab on duration of response and remission in patients with Crohn's disease. In January 2004, Elan Corporation and Biogen Idec announced that the phase III, ENACT-2 maintenance trial of natalizumab in Crohn's disease met the primary endpoint of maintenance of response. Elan and Biogen Idec will discuss these data with regulatory authorities in both the US and Europe and determine the appropriate path forward for natalizumab in Crohn's disease. An NDA for Antegren in Crohn's disease was expected to be filed at the end of 2003; however, due to failing to meet the primary endpoint in the induction trial, Elan is unable to predict when and if a regulatory filing will be made. Earlier, on 23 January 2001, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Biogen CEO expects Antegren to become a blockbuster drug, with sales of at least $US1 billion. He also predicted that Antegren could be on the market as early as 2003 for the indication of Crohn's disease and in 2004 for multiple sclerosis. The Journal stated that Biogen is under pressure to develop new drugs since its flagship product Avonex will be losing its US Orphan Drug Act protection in 2003. Antegren has a different mechanism to that of Avonex and could be used either alone or as a combination therapy.
PMID: 15293871 [PubMed - in process]
Blood. 2002 Apr 15;99( 8 ):2890-6. Related Articles, Links
Human mast cell progenitors use alpha4-integrin, VCAM-1, and PSGL-1 E-selectin for adhesive interactions with human vascular endothelium under flow conditions.
Boyce JA, Mellor EA, Perkins B, Lim YC, Luscinskas FW.
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Mast cells (MCs) are central to asthma and other allergic diseases, and for responses to infection and tissue injuries. MCs arise from committed progenitors (PrMCs) that migrate from the circulation to tissues by incompletely characterized mechanisms, and differentiate in situ in perivascular connective tissues of multiple organs. PrMCs derived in vitro from human cord blood were examined for adhesion molecule expression and their ability to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under conditions that mimic physiologic shear flow. The PrMCs expressed alpha(4)beta(1), low levels of beta7, and the beta2-integrins alphaLbeta2 and alphaMbeta2. The PrMCs also expressed PSGL-1, but not L-selectin. At low (0.5 dynes/cm(2)-1.0 dynes/cm(2)) shear stress, PrMCs attached and rolled on recombinant E-selectin and P-selectin and VCAM-1. An anti-PSGL-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocked essentially all adhesion to P-selectin but reduced adhesion to E-selectin by only 40%, suggesting PrMCs express other ligands for E-selectin. PrMCs adhered strongly to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated HUVECs, whereas adhesion to interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated HUVECs was lower. PrMC adhesion to IL-4-activated HUVECs was totally alpha4-integrin- and VCAM-1-dependent. Adhesion to TNF-alpha-activated HUVECs was blocked by 50% by mAbs against alpha4-integrin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, or PSGL-1, whereas combinations of mAbs to alpha4-integrin plus PSGL-1, or VCAM-1 plus E-selectin, blocked adhesion by greater than 70%. Thus, PrMCs derived in vitro predominantly use alpha4-integrin, VCAM-1, PSGL-1, and other ligands that bind E-selectin for adhesion to cytokine-activated HUVEC monolayers. These observations may explain the abundance of MCs at sites of mucosal inflammation, where VCAM-1 and E-selectin are important inducible receptors.
PMID: 11929779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Int Immunol. 2002 Feb;14(2):177-87. Related Articles, Links
BCR signal through alpha 4 is involved in S6 kinase activation and required for B cell maturation including isotype switching and V region somatic hypermutation.
Inui S, Maeda K, Hua DR, Yamashita T, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto E, Aizawa S, Sakaguchi N.
Department of Immunology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan.
alpha 4 potentially mediates BCR signals through a rapamycin-sensitive TOR pathway. To investigate a potential role for alpha 4 in B cell activation, the alpha 4 gene was disrupted conditionally in B cells by mating male CD19-Cre mice with female alpha 4-floxed mice. CD19-Cre+/alpha 4flox mice showed loss of alpha 4 protein in B lineage cells and a decreased number of phenotypically normal mature B cells. Compared to normal B cells, alpha 4(-) B cells showed a decreased proliferation in response to the B cell stimulants (anti-IgM antibody plus IL-4, anti-CD40 mAb and lipopolysaccharide), and a reduced S6 kinase activation and rapamycin sensitivity. While CD19-Cre+/alpha 4flox mice showed impaired antibody responses to both T cell-independent and T cell-dependent (TD) antigens, the TD antigen response was markedly impaired as demonstrated by reduced isotype switching, reduced germinal center formation and reduced V region somatic hypermutation. These results show that alpha 4 plays a pivotal role in antigen-specific signal transduction during B cell activation and differentiation in vivo.
PMID: 11809737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]