pretty sucky vit d3 averages in there. need a closer look at the magnesium groups. when i have time, will dig into the full text, if i can, to see if there's better clarity available.The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and risk of disease death in men: modification by magnesium intake
http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 015-0006-9
Low vitamin D status increases the risk of death. Magnesium plays an essential role in vitamin D metabolism and low magnesium intake may predispose to vitamin D deficiency and potentiate the health problems. We investigated whether magnesium intake modifies the serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and its associations with mortality in middle-aged and older men.
We included 1892 men aged 42–60 years without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1984–1989 from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Serum 25(OH)D3 was measured with the high-performance liquid chromatography using coulometric electrode array detection. Magnesium intake was assessed with 4-day food recording. Deaths were ascertained by a computer linkage to the national cause of death register. Deaths due accidents and suicides were excluded.
Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the associations. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the lowest (<32.1 nmol/L) versus the highest (>49.4 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D3 tertile was 1.31 (95 % CI 1.07–1.60, Ptrend = 0.01).
Stratified by the magnesium intake, the higher risk was observed only in the lower magnesium intake median (<414 mg/day); HR = 1.60 (95 % CI 1.19–2.13, Ptrend = 0.002) in the lowest versus the highest 25(OH)D3 tertile, whereas the corresponding HR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.75–1.36, Ptrend = 0.63) in the higher magnesium intake median, P for interaction = 0.08.
In this cohort of middle-aged and older men low serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with increased risk of death mainly in those with lower magnesium intake.
Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Incident Hypertension Among Middle-Aged and Older US Women in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study
"To assess the hypothesis that magnesium intake is beneficial in the primary prevention of hypertension, 28,349 female United States health professionals aged ≥45 years participating in the Women’s Health Study (WHS), who initially reported normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, no history of hypertension or antihypertensive medications), were prospectively studied. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate magnesium intake. During a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 8,544 women developed incident hypertension. After adjustment for age and randomized treatment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with the risk for developing hypertension; women in the highest quintile (median 434 mg/day) had a decreased risk for hypertension (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 0.93, p for trend <0.0001) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median 256 mg/day)." ... blah blah blah statistics ... "In conclusion, the results suggest that higher intake of dietary magnesium may have a modest effect on the development of hypertension in women."
Rosanoff, A., Dai, Q., & Shapses, S. A. (2016). Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 7(1), 25-43.
Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2–2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.
Effects of a dietary magnesium deficiency and excess vitamin D3 on swine coronary arteries
"The effect of a moderate magnesium (Mg) deficiency on coronary arteries of 61 swine, fed various levels of vitamin D3, was studied by light and electron microscopy.
The effect of subnormal Mg intake on vitamin D3-induced intimal lesions of the arteries showed a trend towards increased damage.
The degree of cell degeneration and intimal thickening, which was induced by high vitamin D intakes, was as great in swine whose diet was low in Mg and moderately high in vitamin D, as it was in those on twice as much vitamin D.
Also, the degree of arterial calcification was intensified by inadequate Mg intake at the two higher vitamin D intakes.
Present findings indicate that suboptimal dietary Mg, in combination with an excess of vitamin D, has an additive effect in the initiation of ultrastructural changes in the coronary arteries. Extension of the study is indicated to ascertain the extent to which further reduction of Mg intake can potentiate vitamin-D-induced coronary lesions."
Disturbances in diets are known to promote lipid deposition and accelerate the growth and transformation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells in the vascular walls of blood vessels and promote vascular and cardiac dysfunctions of several types; e.g., atherosclerosis, heart rhythm disturbances, decreases in cardiac ejection of blood, decreased force of ventricular and atrial contractility, decreases in arterial blood pressure, diminished venous return to the heart, cardiac tamponade, hypertension, strokes, sudden-cardiac death, myocardial infarctions, etc. [5-7].
A number of epidemiologic studies in North America and Europe have shown that people consuming Western-type diets are low in magnesium(Mg) content (i.e., 30-65% of the RDA for Mg) [7-11]. Most of these diets in the U.S.A. show that 60-80% of Americans are consuming 185-235 mg/day of Mg [6,10].
In 1900, in contrast, Americans were consuming 450-550 mg/day of Mg [6,8].
Using sensitive and newly designed specific Mg2+ ion selective electrodes, our laboratories demonstrated that patients with hypertension, IHD, cardiac failure, strokes, diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, pregnant women with gestational diabetes, renal-induced vascular changes (associated with elevated serum cholesterol), preeclampsia, hemorrhage, sickle cell anemia in children (and adults), and atherosclerosis exhibit significant reductions in serum/plasma/whole blood levels of ionized, but not total blood levels of Mg [6,8,18,40-62]. In addition, our laboratories have also shown that dietary deficiency in rabbits and rats causes vascular remodeling concomitant with atherogenesis (i.e., arteriolar wall hypertrophy and alterations in the matrices of the vascular walls) and hypertension
Effect of transdermal magnesium cream on serum and urinary magnesium levels in humans: A pilot study
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl ... ne.0174817
Oral magnesium supplementation is commonly used to support a low magnesium diet. This investigation set out to determine whether magnesium in a cream could be absorbed transdermally in humans to improve magnesium status.
Methods and findings
In this single blind, parallel designed pilot study, n = 25 participants (aged 34.3+/-14.8y, height 171.5+/-11cm, weight 75.9 +/-14 Kg) were randomly assigned to either a 56 mg/day magnesium cream or placebo cream group for two weeks. Magnesium serum and 24 hour urinary excretion were measured at baseline and at 14 days intervention. Food diaries were recorded for 8 days during this period. Mg test and placebo groups’ serum and urinary Mg did not differ at baseline. After the Mg2+ cream intervention there was a clinically relevant increase in serum magnesium (0.82 to 0.89 mmol/l,p = 0.29) that was not seen in the placebo group (0.77 to 0.79 mmol/L), but was only statistically significant (p = 0.02)) in a subgroup of non-athletes. Magnesium urinary excretion increased from baseline slightly in the Mg2+ group but with no statistical significance (p = 0.48). The Mg2+ group showed an 8.54% increase in serum Mg2+ and a 9.1% increase in urinary Mg2+ while these figures for the placebo group were smaller, i.e. +2.6% for serum Mg2+ and -32% for urinary Mg2+. In the placebo group, both serum and urine concentrations showed no statistically significant change after the application of the placebo cream.
No previous studies have looked at transdermal absorbency of Mg2+ in human subjects. In this pilot study, transdermal delivery of 56 mg Mg/day (a low dose compared with commercial transdermal Mg2+ products available) showed a larger percentage rise in both serum and urinary markers from pre to post intervention compared with subjects using the placebo cream, but statistical significance was achieved only for serum Mg2+ in a subgroup of non-athletes. Future studies should look at higher dosage of magnesium cream for longer durations.
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