pretty sucky vit d3 averages in there. need a closer look at the magnesium groups. when i have time, will dig into the full text, if i can, to see if there's better clarity available.The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and risk of disease death in men: modification by magnesium intake
http://link.springer.com/article/10.100 ... 015-0006-9
Low vitamin D status increases the risk of death. Magnesium plays an essential role in vitamin D metabolism and low magnesium intake may predispose to vitamin D deficiency and potentiate the health problems. We investigated whether magnesium intake modifies the serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and its associations with mortality in middle-aged and older men.
We included 1892 men aged 42–60 years without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1984–1989 from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Serum 25(OH)D3 was measured with the high-performance liquid chromatography using coulometric electrode array detection. Magnesium intake was assessed with 4-day food recording. Deaths were ascertained by a computer linkage to the national cause of death register. Deaths due accidents and suicides were excluded.
Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the associations. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the lowest (<32.1 nmol/L) versus the highest (>49.4 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D3 tertile was 1.31 (95 % CI 1.07–1.60, Ptrend = 0.01).
Stratified by the magnesium intake, the higher risk was observed only in the lower magnesium intake median (<414 mg/day); HR = 1.60 (95 % CI 1.19–2.13, Ptrend = 0.002) in the lowest versus the highest 25(OH)D3 tertile, whereas the corresponding HR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.75–1.36, Ptrend = 0.63) in the higher magnesium intake median, P for interaction = 0.08.
In this cohort of middle-aged and older men low serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with increased risk of death mainly in those with lower magnesium intake.
Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Incident Hypertension Among Middle-Aged and Older US Women in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study
"To assess the hypothesis that magnesium intake is beneficial in the primary prevention of hypertension, 28,349 female United States health professionals aged ≥45 years participating in the Women’s Health Study (WHS), who initially reported normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, no history of hypertension or antihypertensive medications), were prospectively studied. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate magnesium intake. During a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 8,544 women developed incident hypertension. After adjustment for age and randomized treatment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with the risk for developing hypertension; women in the highest quintile (median 434 mg/day) had a decreased risk for hypertension (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 0.93, p for trend <0.0001) compared with those in the lowest quintile (median 256 mg/day)." ... blah blah blah statistics ... "In conclusion, the results suggest that higher intake of dietary magnesium may have a modest effect on the development of hypertension in women."
Rosanoff, A., Dai, Q., & Shapses, S. A. (2016). Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 7(1), 25-43.
Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2–2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.
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