Rats do not like this stuff..
1: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1031:127-42.
Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system?
Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S.
Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, 473 West 12th Avenue, The Ohio State
University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. email@example.com
Vitamin E is essential for normal neurological function. It is the major
lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in the body, protecting the integrity
of membranes by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Mostly on the basis of symptoms
of primary vitamin E deficiency, it has been demonstrated that vitamin E has a
central role in maintaining neurological structure and function. Orally
supplemented vitamin E reaches the cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Vitamin E is a
generic term for all tocopherols and their derivatives having the biological
activity of RRR-alpha-tocopherol, the naturally occurring stereoisomer compounds
with vitamin E activity. In nature, eight substances have been found to have
vitamin E activity: alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-,
beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. Often, the term vitamin E is synonymously
used with alpha-tocopherol. Tocotrienols, formerly known as zeta, , or
eta-tocopherols, are similar to tocopherols except that they have an isoprenoid
tail with three unsaturation points instead of a saturated phytyl tail. Although
tocopherols are predominantly found in corn, soybean, and olive oils,
tocotrienols are particularly rich in palm, rice bran, and barley oils.
Tocotrienols possess powerful antioxidant, anticancer, and cholesterol-lowering
properties. Recently, we have observed that alpha-tocotrienol is multi-fold more
potent than alpha-tocopherol in protecting HT4 and primary neuronal cells
against toxicity induced by glutamate as well as by a number of other toxins.
nanomolar concentration, tocotrienol, but not tocopherol, completely protected
neurons by an antioxidant-independent mechanism. Our current work identifies two
major targets of tocotrienol in the neuron: c-Src kinase and 12-lipoxygenase.Dietary supplementation studies have established that tocotrienol, fed orally,
does reach the brain. The current findings point towards tocotrienol as a potent
neuroprotective form of natural vitamin E.
]PMID: 15753140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]