gamma-linolenic acid

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gamma-linolenic acid

Postby NHE » Sun Dec 29, 2013 7:34 am

I know that some folks shun gamma-linolenic acid because it's an omega-6 fatty acid. However, as an 18:3(n-6) fatty acid, it's unlike other omega-6 fatty acids and appears to be anti-inflammatory. Moreover, it also has an interesting effect on endothelial tight junctions making them stronger by upregulating occludin.

Occludin as a possible determinant of tight junction permeability in endothelial cells.
J Cell Sci. 1997 Jul;110 ( Pt 14):1603-13.

    Endothelial cells provide a crucial interface between blood and tissue environments. Free diffusion of substances across endothelia is prevented by the endothelial tight junction, the permeability of which varies enormously depending on tissue. Endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier possess tight junctions of severely limited permeability, whereas those of non-neural tissue are considerably leakier, but the molecular basis for this difference is not clear. Occludin is a major transmembrane protein localizing at the tight junction. In this study, we show, by immunocytochemistry, that occludin is present at high levels and is distributed continuously at cell-cell contacts in brain endothelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cells of non-neural tissue have a much lower expression of occludin, which is distributed in a discontinuous fashion at cell-cell contacts. The apparent differences in occludin expression levels were directly confirmed by immunoblotting. The differences in occludin protein were reflected at the message level, suggesting transcriptional regulation of expression. We also show that occludin expression is developmentally regulated, being low in rat brain endothelial cells at postnatal day 8 but clearly detectable at post-natal day 70. Our data indicate that regulation of occludin expression may be a crucial determinant of the tight junction permeability properties of endothelial cells in different tissues.


Serum from patients with multiple sclerosis downregulates occludin and VE-cadherin expression in cultured endothelial cells.
Mult Scler. 2003 Jun;9(3):235-8.

    Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells are crucial steps in the development of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) are two major components of the tight junctions (TJs) in the brain microvasculature that help to create the BBB. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serum from MS patients on the expression of these two junctional markers and on the endothelial integrity. Serum from six MS patients in exacerbation, six in remission, and six normal controls (10% by volume) was incubated with cultured endothelial cells, and the expression of occludin and VE-cadherin was measured by immunoblotting. Serum from MS patients in exacerbation significantly reduced the expression of occludin and VE-cadherin compared with patients in remission and normal controls. This disintegrating effect was more pronounced for occludin than for VE-cadherin. We assume that the elevation in cytokines or other serum-soluble factors in MS patients in exacerbation likely provokes downregulation of occludin and VE-cadherin. This downregulation of TJs proteins may, therefore, contribute to the disruption of the BBB in this condition.


Regulation of tight junction permeability and occludin expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Mar 17;244(2):414-20.

    Tight junctions (TJ) are the topical most structure in epithelial and endothelial cells and play a key role in the control of permeability and prevention of tumour cell invasion of endothelium. In this study we examined the effects of a range of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the function of TJs and the expression of occludin, a key molecule in the TJs of the human vascular endothelial cell line, ECV304. Treatment of the endothelial cells with gamma linolenic acid, an anti-cancer PUFA, increased the transendothelial cell resistance (TER) and reduced the paracellular permeability to large molecules. The effects were seen without any changes in the viability of the endothelial cells. Occludin, a recently identified molecule, which plays a major role in tight junctions was up-regulated by this fatty acid as revealed by both Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Other fatty acids were also tested. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) also exerted an up-regulatory effect, but LA and AA down-regulated the expression. We conclude that GLA and EPA which also have other anti-cancer effects, regulate the expression of occludin in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the modification of the TER of these cells.
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Re: gamma-linolenic acid

Postby lyndacarol » Sun Dec 29, 2013 1:03 pm

NHE wrote:I know that some folks shun gamma-linolenic acid because it's an omega-6 fatty acid. However, as an 18:3(n-6) fatty acid, it's unlike other omega-6 fatty acids and appears to be anti-inflammatory. Moreover, it also has an interesting effect on endothelial tight junctions making them stronger by upregulating occludin.

Occludin as a possible determinant of tight junction permeability in endothelial cells.
J Cell Sci. 1997 Jul;110 ( Pt 14):1603-13.

    Endothelial cells provide a crucial interface between blood and tissue environments. Free diffusion of substances across endothelia is prevented by the endothelial tight junction, the permeability of which varies enormously depending on tissue. Endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier possess tight junctions of severely limited permeability, whereas those of non-neural tissue are considerably leakier, but the molecular basis for this difference is not clear. Occludin is a major transmembrane protein localizing at the tight junction. In this study, we show, by immunocytochemistry, that occludin is present at high levels and is distributed continuously at cell-cell contacts in brain endothelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cells of non-neural tissue have a much lower expression of occludin, which is distributed in a discontinuous fashion at cell-cell contacts. The apparent differences in occludin expression levels were directly confirmed by immunoblotting. The differences in occludin protein were reflected at the message level, suggesting transcriptional regulation of expression. We also show that occludin expression is developmentally regulated, being low in rat brain endothelial cells at postnatal day 8 but clearly detectable at post-natal day 70. Our data indicate that regulation of occludin expression may be a crucial determinant of the tight junction permeability properties of endothelial cells in different tissues.


Serum from patients with multiple sclerosis downregulates occludin and VE-cadherin expression in cultured endothelial cells.
Mult Scler. 2003 Jun;9(3):235-8.

    Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells are crucial steps in the development of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) are two major components of the tight junctions (TJs) in the brain microvasculature that help to create the BBB. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serum from MS patients on the expression of these two junctional markers and on the endothelial integrity. Serum from six MS patients in exacerbation, six in remission, and six normal controls (10% by volume) was incubated with cultured endothelial cells, and the expression of occludin and VE-cadherin was measured by immunoblotting. Serum from MS patients in exacerbation significantly reduced the expression of occludin and VE-cadherin compared with patients in remission and normal controls. This disintegrating effect was more pronounced for occludin than for VE-cadherin. We assume that the elevation in cytokines or other serum-soluble factors in MS patients in exacerbation likely provokes downregulation of occludin and VE-cadherin. This downregulation of TJs proteins may, therefore, contribute to the disruption of the BBB in this condition.


Regulation of tight junction permeability and occludin expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Mar 17;244(2):414-20.

    Tight junctions (TJ) are the topical most structure in epithelial and endothelial cells and play a key role in the control of permeability and prevention of tumour cell invasion of endothelium. In this study we examined the effects of a range of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the function of TJs and the expression of occludin, a key molecule in the TJs of the human vascular endothelial cell line, ECV304. Treatment of the endothelial cells with gamma linolenic acid, an anti-cancer PUFA, increased the transendothelial cell resistance (TER) and reduced the paracellular permeability to large molecules. The effects were seen without any changes in the viability of the endothelial cells. Occludin, a recently identified molecule, which plays a major role in tight junctions was up-regulated by this fatty acid as revealed by both Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Other fatty acids were also tested. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) also exerted an up-regulatory effect, but LA and AA down-regulated the expression. We conclude that GLA and EPA which also have other anti-cancer effects, regulate the expression of occludin in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the modification of the TER of these cells.


I think this information is very important; thank you for these excellent finds.
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Re: gamma-linolenic acid

Postby NHE » Wed Jan 08, 2014 12:28 am

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation stimulates differentiation of oligodendroglia cells.
Dev Neurosci. 2006;28(3):196-208.

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been postulated as alternative supportive treatment for multiple sclerosis, since they may promote myelin repair. We set out to study the effect of supplementation with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on OLN-93 oligodendroglia and rat primary oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. It appeared that OLN-93 cells actively incorporate and metabolise the supplemented PUFAs in their cell membrane. The effect of PUFAs on OLN-93 differentiation was further assessed by morphological and Western blot evaluation of markers of oligodendroglia differentiation: 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Supplementation of the OLN-93 cells with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs increased the degree of differentiation determined by morphological analysis. Moreover, CNP protein expression was significantly increased by gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) supplementation. In accordance with the OLN-93 results, studies with rat primary oligodendrocytes, a more advanced model of cell differentiation, showed GLA supplementation to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Following GLA supplementation, increased numbers of proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive oligodendrocytes and increased myelin sheet formation was observed during differentiation of primary oligodendrocytes. Moreover, increased CNP, and enhanced PLP and myelin basic protein expression were found after GLA administration. These studies provide support for the dietary supplementation of specific PUFAs to support oligodendrocyte differentiation and function.
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