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Analysis of venacavograms in 27 patients with superior vena caval obstruction revealed the following four patterns of venous collateral return: type I, partial obstruction (up to 90% stenosis) of the superior vena cave with patency of the azygos vein; type II, near-complete to complete obstruction (90-100%) of the superior vena cava with patency and antegrade flow through the azygos vein and into the right atrium; type Ill, near-complete ...
Preliminary report on pathologic flow patterns in the internal jugular and vertebral veins of patients with multiple sclerosis
Marian Simka, Jacek Kostecki, Maciej Zaniewski, Eugeniusz Majewski, Danuta Szewczyk-Urgacz
Phlebological Review 2009; 17(2):61-64
Article type: Original article
IC™ Value: 3.00
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurologic disease of undetermined background. Recent discoveries suggest that this disease could be a venous pathology. The study has been done to assess veins in the neck in ...
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