The leaky gut lets some bacteria in.
Of specific importance is the type of bacteria. The thickest cell walls belong to the bacteria that can be stained crystal violet and retain the stain. They are known as gram positive bacteria. It has been noted for some time that gram positive bacteria play a role in neurodegeneration (see - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17956303
) “Gram-positive bacterial infections of the central nervous system, such as meningitis, induce an extensive inflammatory response, which in turn may damage neurons. LTA (lipoteichoic acid) is a component of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall that induces glial inflammatory activation in vitro and in vivo. It does so by binding to Toll-like receptor-2 on microglia and astrocytes, rapidly activating ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and p38 MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), causing NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) activation and leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (in synergy with muramyl dipeptide). LTA-activated microglia kill co-cultured neurons apparently via nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite, which may induce apoptosis of neurons that are then phagocytosed by microglia “
Quite a mouthful. In simple terms, Gram positive bacteria can be proinflammatory when stimulated and add to the overproduction of iNOS simultaneously.
The cell wall as a source of autoimmune stimulation
To quote from Wikipedia- “Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of all bacteria (except Mycoplasma), forming the cell wall. ( see - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
Antibodies specific to peptidoglycan are found in the CSF of patients with active MS. ( see - http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content ... 4.full.pdf
Peptidoglycan is made of N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
Effectively, by loading with n-acetyl-glucosamine I was promoting cell walls that could stimulate proinflammatory responses.
Importantly, even a fragment of peptidoglycan can induce Th1 to promote IFN gamma and CD4 activation. (http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content ... 4.full.pdf