Stem Cell Transplantation
Cord Blood Stem Cells: CBSC have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types. Working as Bone Marrow Stem Cells, a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells, at the sole condition that the receiving person is alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.
Umbilical Cord Blood Preparation
The umbilical cord blood from healthy full term newborns with healthy mothers is the only source of stem cells. Given the woman’s consents to donate her umbilical cord, immediately after the delivery, authorized hospital personnel insert a needle into the cord’s vein and the blood is drawn, normally from 80 to 120 ml. The cord blood is then put into a small, sterile pouch with an anticoagulant to prevent clotting. The pouch contains from 100,000 to 300,000 stem cells.
The umbilical cord blood is then immediately sent to the blood bank for testing. First of all, a medical history of the mother is reviewed. Then, the blood is tested to ensure that no genetic disorders, microbiological contamination and/or hereditary diseases exist, such as HIV, Syphilis, CMV, HTLV and Hepatitis. Provided the blood passes all tests, it receives a certification of purity and is then transferred to laboratory.
Here, the blood is tested one more time to confirm the blood banks results. This double check ensures total safety to our patients. After the blood has been cleared it undergoes a process known as magnetic washing, aimed at removing all material except the specifically desired stem cells by means of magnetic beads coated with antibodies to stem cell antigens.
Magnetic enrichment can process very large samples (billions of cells) in one run; significant levels of contaminants (such as T-cells or tumor cells) remain present. FACS results in very pure cell populations that can be selected for several parameters simultaneously (e.g., Linneg, CD34pos, CD90 pos), but it is more time consuming (10,000 to 50,000 cells can be sorted per second) and requires expensive instrumentation.
Purified Cord Blood Stem Cell
When this immunomagnetic separation is done, stem cells are then cultured in a solution containing nutrients and growth factors, but no animal products or by-products: this medium is changed every 1 or 2 days. The cells proliferate for 7 to 10 days under continuous control: if there is any sign of unwanted behavior or contamination, the entire batch is immediately destroyed.
The cells are harvested at the optimum point, i.e. before they start differentiating into specialized cells. At this phase, they normally count from 8 to 10 million. The cells pass through another washing process to remove all growth medium and particles, and we have finally obtained extremely pure stem cells ready for transfusion. If they are not to be used immediately, they are frozen in liquid Nitrogen. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood have the advantage of a “naïve” immune status: in other words, they won’t attack the recipient person. In the rare case rejections were to occur, there are treatments to handle it.
It is important to note that GVHD (Graft Versus Host Disease: a potentially fatal rejection case) has never been an issue with the type of cells (umbilical) we are discussing.
Stem Cells for Ataxia, Stroke, Cerebral Palsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury
Where do stem cells come from?
One source of stem cells is from umbilical cord blood. Since 1988, cord blood stem cells (CBSC) have been used for the treatment of blood disorders and blood cancers, and become available at particular hospitals and universities.
Purified and Potentiated CBSC
Today, modern scientific practices have allowed for the full removal of the white blood cells which can cause GVHD. Consequently HLA matching is no longer required and treatment using this technique carries no associated risks.
Benefits of Purified CBSC
- Create a standardization of data required for efficient clinical trial assessment
- No need for HLA matching or risk of GVHD
- Ease of laboratory expansion (quick dividers) in order to create the high numbers of cells required for efficacious therapeutic application.
The purified stem cells available at selected clinics have been developed using certified third party contract laboratories which detail: phenotype (cell type), purity, total cell count, viability and safety (via genetic level PCR testing for infectious diseases).
Fresh Cell Treatment:
Vain injections under ambient temperature 4 times, every week. The fresh cells must be used immediately with in 24 hours since relocated from the Lab.
Stem Cells for Anti Aging
Potentiated of Cord Blood Stem Cells: CBSC
Used internationally by Piyavate - Shanghai-Heidelberg International, CBSC have been shown to provide significant clinical benefits in the treatment of a wide array of neurological disorders, including spinal cord injuries and strokes, diabetes, as well as heart, lung, autoimmune, skin, ocular and viral conditions.
when jection of fresh and purified CBSC into the body of an aged person will initiate repair and regeneration of aged organs and cells in this person.
Emerging Clinical Fresh Cells Applications
Doctors are focusing on the ability of the stem cell to differentiate into nerve cells. The approach to treatment would be to regenerate new and healthy nerve cells (tissue) to reduce, alleviate, or eliminate the symptoms or effects of diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and repair damage caused by stroke.
Sanchez-Ramos, J., Song, S., Kamath, S., et al. Expression of neural markers in human umbilical cord blood. Experimental Neurology. 2001;171:109-115.
Chen, J., Sanberg, P., Li, Y., et al. Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood reduces behavioral deficits after stroke in rats. Stroke. 2001;32:2682-2688.
Spinal Cord Injury:
In animal studies cord blood stem cells are beneficial in helping to reverse paralysis caused by spinal cord injury. Cord blood-derived stem cells were shown to migrate to and participate in the healing of neurological defects caused by traumatic assault.
Saporta, S., Kim, J., Willing, A., et al. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells infusion in spinal cord injury: engraftment and beneficial influence on behavior. Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research. 2003; 12:271-278.
Successful regeneration of pancreatic function and insulin production has been achieved using stem cells. May help insulin dependent diabetic patients become free of adjunctive therapy (such as insulin injections).
Domenick, M., Ildstad, S. Impact of bone marrow transplantation on type I diabetes. World Journal of Surgery. 2001;25:474-480.
Successful regeneration of heart tissue and blood vessels for the treatment of heart disease or traumatic injury to the heart.
Assmus, B., Schachinger, V., Teupe, C., et al. Transplantation of progenitor cells and regeneration enhancement in acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI). Circulation. 2002;106:3009-3017.
Stem cells have been differentiated into liver cells in mice. Future human applications may include repairing liver damage caused by cirrhosis, viral infection, trauma, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.
Wang X., Ge S., McNamara G., et al. Albumin-expressing hepatocyte-like cells develop in the livers of immune-deficient mice that received transplants of highly purified human hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2003;101(10):4201-4208.
Following stem cell transplantation patients with severe lupus have been able to regenerate blood cells that are completely free of the disease.
Brunner, M., Greinix, H., Redlich, K., et al. Autologous blood stem cell transplantation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus with severe pulmonary impairment. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2002;46(6):1580-1584.
Stem cell transplantation has stopped and even partially reversed disease progression for some patients with multiple sclerosis.
Kozak, T. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The Middle European Journal of Medicine. 2002;114(1-2; 7-13)
Stem cells have been proven to fuse into skeletal muscle cells in patients with muscular dystrophy. Stem cell transplantation may help slow or stop the progression of muscle wasting.
Gussoni, E., Bennett, R., Muskiewicz, K., et al. Long term persistence of donor nuclei in a duchenne muscular dystrophy patient receiving bone marrow transplantation, The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2002;110(6):807-814.
Applications of Purified CBSC:
listed by the American Association of Blood Banks as follows:
• Acute lymphocytic leukemia
• Acute myelocytic leukemia
• Juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia
• Chronic myelogenous leukemia
• Refractory anemia with excess blasts
• Fanconi anemia
• Aplastic anemia
• Refractory anemia
• Sickle cell anemia
• Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
• Kostmann syndrome
• Blackfan-Diamond syndrome
• Severe combined immunodeficiency
• X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder
• Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
• Hurler syndrome
• Hunter syndrome
• Gunther disease
• Globoid cell leukodystrophy
Usage: Intravenous injections under ambient temperature, 1-2 times. The fresh cells must be used within 24 hours of leaving the laboratory.