J Clin Ultrasound. 2002 Jul-Aug;30(6):392-8.
Color Doppler sonographic finding of retrograde jugular venous flow as a sign of innominate vein occlusion.
Conkbayir I, Men S, Yanik B, Hekimoğlu B.
Department of Radiology, Social Security Ankara Hospital, TR-06110 Dişkapi, Ankara, Turkey.
Occlusion or stenosis of the superior vena cava, the innominate vein, or both is an important clinical problem that requires prompt diagnosis. To confirm a suspected occlusion, imaging studies revealing the obstruction and the presence of collateral venous routes are needed. Color Doppler sonography (CDUS) is widely used to evaluate suspected venous thrombosis and collateral pathways. We present the CDUS findings in 2 cases of innominate vein occlusion. In case 1, CDUS of the neck and left upper arm, which harbored a permanent hemodialysis access, showed engorged veins in the upper arm, a patent dialysis access, and some collateral veins in the axilla. The subclavian and internal jugular veins were patent, but the flow in the left internal jugular vein was reversed. The left innominate vein was occluded. In case 2, CDUS of the upper arms showed that the veins, the dialysis access in the left upper arm, and the subclavian and jugular veins were patent, but the flow in the left internal jugular vein and in the right subclavian vein was reversed. Collateral veins were seen in the right axillary region. Both innominate veins were occluded. The resulting collateral pathways, ie, retrograde flow in the ipsilateral jugular vein crossing to the contralateral jugular vein through dural sinuses, were confirmed by venography in both cases.
Retrograde Flow in the Left Inferior Petrosal Sinus and Blood Steal of the Cavernous Sinus Associated with Central Vein Stenosis: MR Angiographic Findings
Bülent Oğuz Gençb and
bSelçuk University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Konya, Turkey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We attempted to identify the cause of abnormal venous flow seen during arterial MR angiography in the inferior petrosal sinus by use of in three female patients (aged 51, 48, and 70 years, respectively).
METHODS: Arterial 3D time-of-flight MR angiography was performed with a tilted optimized nonsaturating excitation pulse sequence (TR/TE, 31/7; flip angle, 20 degrees; section thickness, 65 mm; effective thickness, 1 mm; number of sections, 1 to 2); no magnetization transfer pulse sequence was used. Contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the neck was performed with a 3D fast low-angle shot pulse sequence (TR/TE, 4.6/1.8; flip angle, 40 to 45 degrees; section thickness, 80 mm; intersection gap, 1.5 mm; acquisition matrix, 180 × 256; acquisition time, 27 s) on a system with a whole-body coil.
RESULTS: In all three patients, 3D time-of-flight MR angiography revealed abnormal vascular signal originating from the left cavernous sinus, continuing through the inferior petrosal sinus, and ending in the proximal internal jugular vein at the jugular bulb level. Abnormal vascular signal at the jugular bulb, sluggish flow and flow-related enhancement in the left internal jugular vein, and signal void in the contralateral jugular vein were noted. Contrast-enhanced delayed-phase MR angiography showed stenosis in the left brachiocephalic vein in all patients.
CONCLUSION: High signal intensity noted at the inferior petrosal sinus resulted from retrograde flow. Retrograde flow was due to blood stealing from the internal jugular vein toward the cavernous sinus because of venous stenosis in the brachiocephalic vein.
Dr. Zamboni's research did not come out of nowhere. Terms like retrograde flow and central venous stenosis already existed to describe what he found. His brilliance was in finding these obstructions and these flow abnormalities in a specific patient population (us).
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