Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to reduced rates of cancer prior to the era of immunomodulating treatments. We assessed the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 1338 MS patients and evaluated the effect of exposure to immunomodulatory treatment. Cancer incidence in the MS population was compared with the expected age- and gender-matched incidence rates in the Israeli population for the period 1960-2003. Time-dependant Cox model analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for glatiramer acetate, beta-interferons (1a and 1-b) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Among 892 female MS patients, 15 (1.7%) developed breast cancer, and 31 (3.5%) developed cancers of any type. Seventeen of 446 (3.8%) male MS patients developed cancer. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) computed until the time of first immunomodulatory treatment were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.38-0.92, p = 0.02) for all female cancer, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.64-1.91) for all male cancer. Time-dependent covariate analyses for female breast cancer yielded a relative risk for glatiramer acetate of 3.10 (95% CI, 0.86-11.1) and 0.52 (95% CI, 0.07-4.05) for beta-interferons. For IVIg, the analyses were uninformative. Our findings indicate that cancer incidence is significantly lower in female MS patients than in the general population. Female MS patients treated with glatiramer acetate showed an elevated rate of breast cancer and all MS patients treated with beta-interferons showed an elevated risk of non-breast cancers though not statistically significant (p = 0.122 and 0.072, respectively). Further study is needed to assess possible associations between long-term exposure to the novel immunomodulatory treatments in MS and rate of cancer.
BACKGROUND: Prior to the era of immunomodulating or immunosuppressive (IS) treatments Multiple Sclerosis (MS) was linked to reduced rates of cancer. Method A descriptive study of MS patients with a documented oncological event was performed. From 1 January 1995 to 30 June 2006, we collected and studied the profile of 7,418 MS patients gathered from nine French MS centers. We evaluated the incidence of cancer in a Cancer Risk In MS Cohort.
RESULTS: Thirty one patients (1.75%) with confirmed MS had a history of cancer: mean age at MS diagnosis of 37.9 years and a mean age at cancer diagnosis of 46.4 years. The most frequent cancers were breast (34.5%), gynecological (12.5%), skin (10.2%), acute leukemia and lymphoma (5.9%), digestive (8.8%), kidney and bladder (5.1%), lung (3.4%) and central nervous system (3%). Calculated standardized incidence rates were 0.29 (0.17-0.45) for men and 0.53 (0.42-0.66) for women. The incidence of cancer in this MS population was lower than that expected for the general population. Matched to age, gender and histology, cancers in MS were associated with a young age and exposure to IS treatments. When considering all patients, treated patients had a 3-fold higher risk of developing cancer, if they had a history of IS (P = 0.0035). For treated patients, the cancer sites were more likely the breast, the urinary tract, the digestive system and the skin.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MS patients do not have an increased risk of cancer. Rather for several types of cancer a significantly reduced risk was observed, except for breast cancer in women treated with IS. The relative increased risk of breast cancer in MS women under IS treatment warrants further attention.
"Diabetics often take insulin, for example, and many tumors have insulin receptors. These receptors are areas on the surface of the cancer cells that can take insulin from the blood and use it to help the tumor grow.
Because metformin reduces the need for insulin, the tumor cells would have less of it to use, and in principle that might explain the anti-cancer effects."
There is evidence that copper and zinc have pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties, respectively, so that their imbalance may be expected to condition oxidative stress status. Oxidative stress is relevant in aging and in age-related degenerative diseases. In this study, blood content of copper, zinc, and ceruloplasmin as well as of lipid peroxides were investigated in 81 healthy and 62 disabled octo-nonagenarians affected by chronic degenerative diseases, and in 81 healthy adults. Serum copper/zincratio and ceruloplasmin were significantly higher in the elderly than in the healthy adults. Moreover, all these parameters were significantly higher in the disabled than in the healthy elderly. Notably, the increased copper/zincratio found in healthy elderly was due to high copper values, whereas in the disabled, both high copper and low serum zinc concentrations were present. The copper/zincratio was significantly and positively related to systemic oxidative stress status in all groups. The higher the serum copper/zincratio the higher the lipid peroxides plasma content. We conclude that there is a strict relationship between copper/zincratio and systemic oxidant burden. Moreover, advanced age and, particularly, advanced age-related chronic degenerative diseases are associated with a significant increase in the copper/zincratio and systemic oxidative stress.
Hyperzincuria and hypermagnesuria were evident in diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. There
were no differences in plasma magnesium or wholeblood manganese between groups. Plasma copper was higher and plasma zinc was lower in diabetic than in control subjects.
J Surg Res. 2012 Apr;173(2):e53-61. Epub 2011 Oct 21.
Pterostilbene and cancer: current review.
McCormack D, McFadden D.
Department of Surgery, Danbury Hospital, Danbury, Connecticut 06810, USA. Denise.McCormack@wcthealthnetwork.org
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is an antioxidant that is primarily found in blueberries. Studies suggest that pterostilbene exhibits the hallmark characteristics of an effective anticancer agent based on its antineoplastic properties in several common malignancies. In vitro models have shown that pterostilbene inhibits cancer growth through alteration of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of metastasis. In vivo, pterostilbene inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis with negligible toxicity. Pterostilbene has also been shown to be effective as an inducer of antioxidant capacity in multiple cancer cell lines that may facilitate its function as an anticarcinogenic compound. Additionally, preliminary studies show that pterostilbene exhibits much greater bioavailability compared with other stilbene compounds; however the exact pharmacologic mechanism of pterostilbene and its effects in humans are still under investigation. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the antineoplastic mechanisms of pterostilbene based on the results of preclinical studies and highlight recent advances in the study of this dietary compound.
Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 22099605 [PubMed - in process]
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Mar;54(3):335-44.
Differential effects of resveratrol and its naturally occurring methylether analogs on cell cycle and apoptosis in human androgen-responsive LNCaP cancer cells.
Wang TT, Schoene NW, Kim YS, Mizuno CS, Rimando AM.
SourceDiet, Genomics, and Immunology Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.
Stilbenes are phytoalexins that become activated when plants are stressed. These compounds exist in foods and are widely consumed. Resveratrol is a grape-derived stilbene, which possesses a wide range of health-promoting activities, including anticancer properties. Several other stilbenes structurally similar to resveratrol are also available in food, but their biological activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of resveratrol and its natural derivatives pterostilbene, trans-resveratrol trimethylether, trans-pinostilbene and trans-desoxyrhapontigenin on androgen-responsive human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We found that these compounds exert differential effects on LNCaP cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis. Trans-resveratrol trimethylether appeared to be the most potent compound among the stilbenes tested. Treatment of LNCaP cells with trans-resveratrol trimethylether resulted in G2/M blockage while other compounds, including resveratrol, induced G1/S arrest. Moreover, different from other compounds, trans-resveratrol trimethylether induced apoptosis. At the molecular level, the effects of these compounds on cell cycle correlated with induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A and B mRNA levels. Additionally, these compounds also inhibited both androgen- as well as estrogen-mediated pathways. These results provide mechanistic information on how resveratrol and its methylether analogs may act to contribute to potential antiprostate cancer activity.
PMID:20077416[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Am J Transl Res. 2012;4(1):44-51. Epub 2012 Jan 5.
Pterostilbene simultaneously induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cyto-protective autophagy in breast cancer cells.
Wang Y, Ding L, Wang X, Zhang J, Han W, Feng L, Sun J, Jin H, Wang XJ.
As a nature phytoalexin found in grapes, resveratrol has been proposed as a potential drug for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. However, its poor bioavailability limits its potential clinical application.
Pterostilbene, the natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol with greater bioavailability, was confirmed to inhibit tumor growth both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating its potential for further clinical application.
In the current study, we found that pterostilbene could markedly inhibit the growth of two independent breast cancer cell lines. Both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of wnt singling was induced by pterostilbene. The dominant-active mutant of β-catenin could reverse the growth inhibitory effect of pterostilbene, indicating that the inhibition of wnt signaling is important to the growth inhibitory effect of pterostilbene.
Interestingly, pterostilbene induced autophagy and blockage of autophagy augmented pterostilbene-induced growth inhibition, suggesting that the combination of autophagy inhibitors with pterostilbene and other therapeutics such as endocrine drugs could serve as a new and promising strategy for the treatment of breast cancer cells.
PMID:22347521[PubMed - in process] PMCID:PMC3276376
jimmylegs wrote:hey there jack, what is your whole daily regimen, iima?
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