i wrote the bones of this post almost a year ago, for someone else - but with a couple slight modifications it could be useful here...
Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancerhttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/conte ... 5882.short
"biomarkers for which an immunoassay was available were tested on samples from the fifth center, which included 41 healthy women, 41 patients with ovarian cancer, and 20 each with breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Three biomarkers were identified as follows: (a) apolipoprotein A1 (down-regulated in cancer); (b) a truncated form of transthyretin (down-regulated); and (c) a cleavage fragment of inter-?-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (up-regulated)."
...zinc regulates apolipoprotein A1 expression
Transcriptional Control of Apolipoprotein A-I Gene Expression in Diabeteshttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/co ... 3/513.full
"...some micronutrients have been found to have an important modulatory role in apo A-I gene expression (60,61). In particular, zinc deficiency causes downregulation of apo A-I expression (59), whereas supraphysiologic concentrations of zinc, as well as chromium or vanadium, downregulate apo A-I promoter activity (61). Some of the effects of zinc deficiency may be explained by the dependence of zinc finger-containing transcription factors, such as Sp1, for the coordinating effect of zinc ions."
INSERT i had found this later and forwarded, just squeezing it in here...
Changes of serum-zinc in breast cancer (author's transl)].
"Serum-zinc-levels were evaluated in patients with breast cancer in relation to the various stages. Patients with metastatic breast cancer had significantly depressed zinc-levels, wereas patients with disease apparently localized to the breast and draining lymphnodes had nearly normal serum zinc levels. It appears that the determination of serum zinc in breast cancer patients may be of value in discriminating between localized and metastatic disease." END OF INSERT
so if apo A-I is downregulated in cancer and zinc deficiency causes apo A-I downregulation.. might be a plan to check that zinc status!
selenium down-regulate(s) transthyretin (in an animal study) (selenium status is also down in MS patients)
Selenium deficiency decreases expression of the genes for transthyretinhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 1796002643
"...mRNA levels for transthyretin and citrate transport protein are both reduced in the livers of Se-deficient rats. Reductions averaged 44.7% (p=0.0009) for transthyretin and 42.8% (p=0.0032) for citrate transport protein. These results suggest a coordinated regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism in rats by dietary Se intake."
I can't find anything comprehensible for item c), inter-?-trypsin etc.
on to vitamin D... (also a risk factor for ms)
Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Pooled analysishttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 6006003918
Intake of 2000 IU/day of Vitamin D3, and, when possible, very moderate exposure to sunlight, could raise serum 25(OH)D to 52 ng/ml, a level associated with reduction by 50% in incidence of breast cancer, according to observational studies.
Serum Levels of Micronutrients, Antioxidants and Total Antioxidant Status Predict Risk of Breast Cancer in a Case Control Studyhttp://jn.nutrition.org/content/132/2/303.short
"We conclude that increased serum levels of ß-carotene, retinol, bilirubin and total antioxidant status are associated with reductions in breast cancer risk."
Prospective Study of Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinoid Concentrations and the Risk of Breast Cancerhttp://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/5/451.short
"Median concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, and total carotene were significantly lower in cases compared with controls in the 1974 cohort ... and for lutein in the 1989 cohort ... The risk of developing breast cancer in the highest fifth was approximately half of that of women in the lowest fifth for beta-carotene, lycopene, and total carotene in the 1974 cohort."
Plasma Carotenoids, Retinol, and Tocopherols and Risk of Breast Cancerhttp://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/161/2/153.short
"The multivariate risk of breast cancer was 25-35% less for women with the highest quintile compared with that for women with the lowest quintile of beta-carotene..., beta-carotene..., lutein/zeaxanthin..., and total carotenoids... The inverse association observed with beta-carotene and breast cancer was greater for invasive cancers with nodal metastasis."
Serum Retinol, Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, and Selenium As Related to Subsequent Cancer of Specific Siteshttp://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/135/2/115.short
"For all four nutrients, the majority of results showed lower levels among persons who subsequently became cases than among controls. Low levels of beta-carotene were most likely to be associated with subsequent cancer, but there were marked differences by cancer site."
RRR-alpha-tocopherol induces human breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis via death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated apoptotic signalinghttp://www.cancerletters.info/article/S0304-3835(07
"Thus, [gamma-tocopherol] is a potent pro-apoptotic agent for human breast cancer cells inducing apoptosis via activation of DR5-mediated apoptotic pathway."
My comment: this study used synthetic gamma tocopherol to successfully kill off cancer cells. In past studies, the use of synthetic alpha tocopherol, intended to test protection against prostate cancer, actually drove down gamma tocopherol levels in subjects, and cancer risk increased. Of course natural food source gamma tocopherol is much better that synthetic sources. Fortunately, there is no known toxicity resulting from consuming vitamin E rich foods.
hope you find this useful, nim.