they're basically saying, these things aren't all necessarily going to be reversible, so don't go around saying they aren't causal. this is fairly common sense in my view. i have permanent spinal cord damage from b12 deficiency, i just have to deal. and more hyperbolically, if you die from scurvy, no amount of vit c is going to sort that out.Controlled trials of vitamin D, causality and type 2 statistical error
"Two recent studies published in The Lancet (Autier et al. (2013) Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol2, 76–89 and Bolland et al. (2014) Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol2, 307–320) have concluded that low levels of vitamin D are not a cause but a consequence of ill health brought about by reduced exposure to the sun, an association known as ‘reverse causality’. The scientific evidence and reasoning for these conclusions are examined here and found to be faulty. A null result in a clinical trial of vitamin D in adults need not lead to a conclusion of reverse causation when low vitamin D is found in observational studies of the same disease earlier in life. To assume an explanation of reverse causality has close similarities with type 2 statistical error..."
Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 8713701657
"Results from intervention studies did not show an effect of vitamin D supplementation on disease occurrence, including colorectal cancer. In 34 intervention studies including 2805 individuals with mean 25(OH)D concentration lower than 50 nmol/L at baseline supplementation with 50 μg per day or more did not show better results. Supplementation in elderly people (mainly women) with 20 μg vitamin D per day seemed to slightly reduce all-cause mortality. The discrepancy between observational and intervention studies suggests that low 25(OH)D is a marker of ill health. Inflammatory processes involved in disease occurrence and clinical course would reduce 25(OH)D, which would explain why low vitamin D status is reported in a wide range of disorders. In elderly people, restoration of vitamin D deficits due to ageing and lifestyle changes induced by ill health could explain why low-dose supplementation leads to slight gains in survival."
"Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III
"High intake of total, dietary or supplemental magnesium was independently associated with significantly reduced risks of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Intake of magnesium significantly interacted with intake of vitamin D in relation to risk of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Additionally, the inverse association between total magnesium intake and vitamin D insufficiency primarily appeared among populations at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Furthermore, the associations of serum 25(OH)D with mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer, were modified by magnesium intake, and the inverse associations were primarily present among those with magnesium intake above the median."
Interactions between magnesium and vitamin D: possible implications in the immune system.
"Evidence clearly shows that magnesium and vitamin D [1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25(OH)2D3] independently affect numerous aspects of the immune system. ... this paper identifies numerous places in common where both magnesium and vitamin D reportedly affect immune function. ... there are compelling reasons to believe that examining interactions between magnesium and vitamin D within the immune system could prove rewarding, especially since the physiological statuses of both nutrients in human populations are less than optimum."
familiar territory - this was the study i used in 2006 to justify my proposed 4000 IU/d regimen with my GP.Heaney, R. P., Davies, K. M., Chen, T. C., Holick, M. F., & Barger-Lux, M. J. (2003). Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 77(1), 204-210.
this assertion directs us to another single case study (which actually contains zero hits on '150' and 375'):Holick, M. F. (2005). The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences. The Journal of nutrition, 135(11), 2739S-2748S.
"Vitamin D intoxication that includes hypercalcemia, typically, is not observed until the 25(OH)D reach levels of at least 375 nmol/L (150 ng/mL) (45)."
so this guy was WAY overdoing D3 for just 2 yrs, compared to milady with the D2 for 15 yrs and more."45. Koutkia P, Chen TC, Holick MF. Vitamin D intoxication associated with an over-the-counter supplement. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:66-67."
"We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the ingestion of an over-the-counter vitamin D supplement. A 42-year-old man was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia of a few weeks’ duration. For the past two years, he had been taking a supplement that contained vitamin D3. On admission his serum levels were as follows: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 487.3 ng per milliliter (normal range, 8.9 to 46.7); calcium, 15.0 mg per deciliter (normal range, 8.8 to 10.1); creatinine, 2.4 mg per deciliter; and hemoglobin, 10.5 mg per deciliter (all measurements were performed at the Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, Calif.). ...
"The patient sent us two bottles of his vitamin D3 supplement (Prolongevity, Markham, Ont., Canada), and we purchased one from the manufacturer. All supplements were from different lots. The vitamin D3 supplement was extracted with methanol and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.4 The supplements from each of the three lots that we analyzed contained a mean of 1.3±0.1 mg, 12.8±0.1 mg, and 21.7±0.2 mg of vitamin D3 per gram of powder, respectively, or about 26 to 430 times the amount
listed by the manufacturer (2000 IU or 50 µg of vitamin D per gram of powder). The patient consumed one teaspoon (or 3 g) of powder daily, or 156,000 to 2,604,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. This amount was 78 to 1302 times the recommended safe upper limit of 2000 IU per day."
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