all things vitamin E

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all things vitamin E

Postby NHE » Sun Dec 04, 2011 2:16 am

Vitamin E

Vitamin E intake high - is it a problem?

Vitamin E and Selenium increase the risk of Prostate cancer
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Re: all things vitamin E

Postby jimmylegs » Sun Feb 12, 2012 6:24 pm

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of alpha-tocopherol in patients with multiple sclerosis (1998) ... 409800370X
"The serum levels of vitamin E and the serum vitamin E/cholesterol ratio were significantly lower in MS patients when compared with controls (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). These values were not correlated with age, age at onset and duration of the disease in the patients group."

Nonenzymatic antioxidants of blood in multiple sclerosis (1999)
We investigated the plasma level of lipid peroxides ... (glutathione, α-tocopherol, retinol, plasma sulfhydryl groups, and uric acid) in multiple sclerosis patients with exacerbation or in remission, including a group treated with β-interferon. ... the ratio of plasma α-tocopherol to cholesterol plus triglyceride was decreased (P < 0.001). ... β-Interferon increased plasma α-tocopherol levels (P < 0.001) (:roll:)

Measurement of Low-Molecular Weight Antioxidants, Uric Acid, Tyrosine and Tryptophan in Plaques and White Matter from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (1992) ... tNr=234298
The levels of the antioxidants ascorbic acid, cysteine, reduced glutathione and a-tocopherol, of the free-radical marker uric acid and of the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan were measured by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography in plaques, adjacent white matter and distant white matter from patients with multiple sclerosis, and in central nervous system tissue from patients without neurological diseases. ... α-tocopherol was lowest in plaques and highest in distant white matter in all cases.

SELENIUM, VITAMIN E AND COPPER IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (1976) (i know i have posted this study elsewhere ... wish i could see the full data regarding the values for vitamin e, since we all know my opinion of the value of 'international normal ranges' is so very high :S ) ... x/abstract
There has been accumulation of the nutritional muscular dystrophy of the cattle in a certain western district of Finland where the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is also highest. This animal disease is due to lack of selenium (Se) and vitamin E. The Se content of whole blood was low (52.8 ± 11.3 ng/ml) in MS patients from this high-risk area compared to the controls (68.8 ± 11.0). The data for serum failed to confirm this tendency. All Se values appeared to he lower than international values suggested. The values for hoth vitamin E and copper were within the international normal range.

Vitamin E in Humans: Demand and Delivery (1996) ... 196.001541
"How much vitamin E is enough? An established use of supplemental vitamin E in humans is in the prevention and therapy of deficiency symptoms. ... In healthy individuals, a daily intake of about 15-30 mg of α-tocopherol is recommended to obtain “optimal plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations” (30 μM or greater)."
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Re: all things vitamin E

Postby jimmylegs » Thu Feb 16, 2012 10:01 am

excellent detailed article on vitamin E

Newly Discovered Benefits of Gamma Tocopherol (2002) ... ma_01.html


"Since taking large doses of alpha tocopherol depletes plasma levels of gamma tocopherol, the health-conscious consumer who takes only alpha tocopherol supplements needs to seriously reconsider this practice. Likewise, most vitamin E supplements provide only alpha tocopherol. New evidence strongly suggests that this is inadequate supplementation."

Anti-inflammatory properties of gamma tocopherol

Protection against prostate and other cancers

Gamma tocopherol's role in cardiovascular disease
"In rats, gamma tocopherol supplementation led to a more potent decrease in platelet clumping and clot formation than supplementation with alpha tocopherol (but it should be remembered that supplementing with gamma tocopherol raises the levels of both gamma and alpha tocopherol). Gamma tocopherol was also a more effective inhibitor of ex-vivo lipid peroxidation, LDL oxidation and superoxide generation. Likewise, gamma tocopherol more effectively enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and activity.[7]
Both alpha and gamma tocopherol increased the generation of nitric oxide, or NO, (NO causes the dilation of blood vessels) by increasing the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. However, only gamma tocopherol supplements led to enhanced protein expression of this crucial enzyme."

Other benefits

Sources of gamma tocopherol

"Please remember that taking large amounts of alpha tocopherol lowers the plasma levels of gamma tocopherol; taking gamma tocopherol, on the other hand, increases the levels of both alpha tocopherol and gamma tocopherol. Taking only alpha tocopherol supplements results in gamma tocopherol depletion.
It will take controlled human studies using gamma tocopherol supplementation to explore its benefits more fully"


quotes from one of the referenced articles (pre-dates the flawed SELECT supplementation trial by 8 years)

"A total of 117 of 145 men who developed prostate cancer and 233 matched control subjects had toenail and plasma samples available for assays of selenium, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol. The association between the micronutrient concentrations and the development of prostate cancer was assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided."
"For gamma-tocopherol, men in the highest fifth of the distribution had a fivefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer than men in the lowest fifth (P:(trend) =.002)."
"Statistically significant protective associations for high levels of selenium and alpha-tocopherol were observed only when gamma-tocopherol concentrations were high."
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Re: all things vitamin E

Postby jackD » Fri Feb 17, 2012 12:09 am

GOD's gift to neurons -> Tocotrienols


p.s. Find some FULL-Spectrun ones.

The contents should be listed as shown below.

Tocomin® Full-Spectrum Natural 192 mg
Tocotrienol/Tocopherol Complex

Typical Distribution:

Gamma tocotrienol ........... 38.4-46.08 mg
Alpha tocotrienol..............21.12-26.88 mg
Delta tocotrienol...............10.56-13.44 mg
Beta tocotrienol......................... 2.88 mg
Alpha tocopherol............... 19.2-26.88 mg

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1031:127-42.

Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system?

Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S.
SourceDavis Heart & Lung Research Institute, 473 West 12th Avenue, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Vitamin E is essential for normal neurological function. It is the major lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in the body, protecting the integrity of membranes by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Mostly on the basis of symptoms of primary vitamin E deficiency, it has been demonstrated that vitamin E has a central role in maintaining neurological structure and function.

Orally supplemented vitamin E reaches the cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Vitamin E is a generic term for all tocopherols and their derivatives having the biological activity of RRR-alpha-tocopherol, the naturally occurring stereoisomer compounds with vitamin E activity.

In nature, eight substances have been found to have vitamin E activity: alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol.

Often, the term vitamin E is synonymously used with alpha-tocopherol.

Tocotrienols, formerly known as zeta, , or eta-tocopherols, are similar to tocopherols except that they have an isoprenoid tail with three unsaturation points instead of a saturated phytyl tail. Although tocopherols are predominantly found in corn, soybean, and olive oils, tocotrienols are particularly rich in palm, rice bran, and barley oils.

Tocotrienols possess powerful antioxidant, anticancer, and cholesterol-lowering properties.

Recently, we have observed that alpha-tocotrienol is multi-fold more potent than alpha-tocopherol in protecting HT4 and primary neuronal cells against toxicity induced by glutamate as well as by a number of other toxins.

At nanomolar concentration, tocotrienol, but not tocopherol, completely protected neurons by an antioxidant-independent mechanism. Our current work identifies two major targets of tocotrienol in the neuron: c-Src kinase and 12-lipoxygenase.

Dietary supplementation studies have established that tocotrienol, fed orally, does reach the brain. The current findings point towards tocotrienol as a potent neuroprotective form of natural vitamin E.

PMID:15753140[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Natural vitamin E

Postby jimmylegs » Sat Sep 13, 2014 12:05 pm

Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy ... 491400152X
•This is a comprehensive review of various forms of vitamin E.
•γ- and δ-tocopherol and tocotrienols inhibit multiple proinflammatory pathways.
•Long-chain vitamin E metabolites have unique anti-inflammatory effects.
•γ- and δ-tocopherol and tocotrienols are beneficial for disease prevention/treatment.
The vitamin E family consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. α-Tocopherol (αT) is the predominant form of vitamin E in tissues and its deficiency leads to ataxia in humans. However, results from many clinical studies do not support a protective role of αT in disease prevention in people with adequate nutrient status. On the other hand, recent mechanistic studies indicate that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol, and γ-tocotrienol, have unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are superior to those of αT in prevention and therapy against chronic diseases. These vitamin E forms scavenge reactive nitrogen species, inhibit cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed eicosanoids, and suppress proinflammatory signaling such as NF-κB and STAT3/6. Unlike αT, other vitamin E forms are significantly metabolized to carboxychromanols via cytochrome P450-initiated side-chain ω-oxidation. Long-chain carboxychromanols, especially 13′-carboxychromanols, are shown to have stronger anti-inflammatory effects than unmetabolized vitamins and may therefore contribute to the beneficial effects of vitamin E forms in vivo. Consistent with mechanistic findings, animal and human studies show that γT and tocotrienols may be useful against inflammation-associated diseases. This review focuses on non-αT forms of vitamin E with respect to their metabolism, anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms, and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models as well as human clinical intervention studies."

my pre-dx diet was low in vit E (among other things) and after reading about and implementing the klenner protocol (which was modified in my case, which long predates currently available info on E complex benefits, and which included 2400 IU/d (in divided doses) of a suboptimal alpha tocopherol form) the sensory ataxia / loss of proprioception in my hands resolved within three days.
sample foods ... #foodchart
sample supplement
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Re: all things vitamin E

Postby jimmylegs » Sat Dec 27, 2014 12:31 pm


Increasing serum levels of vitamin A, D and E are associated with alterations of different inflammation markers in patients with multiple sclerosis (2014)
"To explore the relationships between vitamin A, D and E and inflammation in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, we assessed their associations with 11 inflammation markers in 9 serial serum samples from 85 patients, before and during interferon-β1a treatment. A negative association was found between vitamin A and pentraxin 3 independent of interferon-β1a use, whereas positive associations between vitamin D and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and secreted frizzled-related protein 3 were seen before, and between vitamin E and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 during interferon-β1a treatment. These findings suggest associations with diverse inflammatory pathways, which may be differentially influenced by interferon-β1a treatment."

also - an older study, previously posted elsewhere at TiMS over the last few yrs:

Alpha-tocopherol and NADPH in the erythrocytes and plasma of multiple sclerosis patients. Effect of interferon-beta-1b treatment (2003).
To investigate the influence of interferon-beta-1b (INF-beta-1b) therapy on blood antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and NADPH) in multiple sclerosis (MS).
Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 14) have been studied during 6 months of INF-beta-1b therapy. alpha-Tocopherol was determined by HPLC and UV or electrochemical detection; NADPH was quantified spectrophotometrically.
The erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol level was reduced (p < 0.001) before treatment, but had regained the control level by 6 months of therapy. The plasma alpha-tocopherol/lipid ratios were constant during therapy. Plasma triglyceride levels were transiently increased (p = 0.0270) after 1 month of treatment. INF-beta-1b had also induced a transient decrease in NADPH after 1 month, but thereafter the level returned to approximately the initial value (p = 0.0248).
INF-beta-1b seems to exert a sparing effect toward the erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol content. The fall in NADPH in parallel to the rise in plasma triglycerides suggests stimulation of fatty acid synthesis by INF-beta-1b."
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