Glutathione and the Role of Inflammation in MS

Discuss herbal therapies, vitamins and minerals, bee stings, etc. here

Re: Glutathione and the Role of Inflammation in MS

Postby jackD » Thu Mar 15, 2012 10:48 am

Well - at least they are aware of the problem and doing some reviews and research.

jackD


Pflugers Arch. 2010 Jul;460(2):525-42. Epub 2010 Mar 14.

Glutamate receptors, neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

Lau A, Tymianski M.

Division of Applied and Interventional Research, Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 2S8.

Glutamate excitotoxicity is a hypothesis that states excessive glutamate causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. As glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), the implications of glutamate excitotoxicity are many and far-reaching. Acute CNS insults such as ischaemia and traumatic brain injury have traditionally been the focus of excitotoxicity research. However, glutamate excitotoxicity has also been linked to chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and others.

Despite the continued research into the mechanisms of excitotoxicity, there are currently no pharmacological interventions capable of providing significant neuroprotection in the clinical setting of brain ischaemia or injury.

This review addresses the current state of excitotoxic research, focusing on the structure and physiology of glutamate receptors; molecular mechanisms underlying excitotoxic cell death pathways and their interactions with each other; the evidence for glutamate excitotoxicity in acute neurologic diseases; laboratory and clinical attempts at modulating excitotoxicity; and emerging targets for excitotoxicity research.


PMID: 20229265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Re: Glutathione and the Role of Inflammation in MS

Postby jackD » Sun Mar 25, 2012 2:36 pm

I have been taking some vitamin K1 & k2 combo for many years. My main reason was first to prevent calicification of my arteries and heart valves. I also take some Vinpocetine which has a similiar effect and may even remove some unwanted calcium deposits.

jackD

http://www.lef.org/Vitamins-Supplements ... itamin%20k


J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 2;23(13):5816-26.

Novel role of vitamin k in preventing oxidative injury to developing oligodendrocytes and neurons.

Li J, Lin JC, Wang H, Peterson JW, Furie BC, Furie B, Booth SL, Volpe JJ, Rosenberg PA.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Oxidative stress is believed to be the cause of cell death in multiple disorders of the brain, including perinatal hypoxia/ischemia. Glutamate, cystine deprivation, homocysteic acid, and the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine all cause oxidative injury to immature neurons and oligodendrocytes by depleting intracellular glutathione.

Although vitamin K is not a classical antioxidant, we report here the novel finding that vitamin K1 and K2 (menaquinone-4) potently inhibit glutathione depletion-mediated oxidative cell death in primary cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors and immature fetal cortical neurons with EC50 values of 30 nm and 2 nm, respectively. The mechanism by which vitamin K blocks oxidative injury is independent of its only known biological function as a cofactor for gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, an enzyme responsible for posttranslational modification of specific proteins. Neither oligodendrocytes nor neurons possess significant vitamin K-dependent carboxylase or epoxidase activity. Furthermore, the vitamin K antagonists warfarin and dicoumarol and the direct carboxylase inhibitor 2-chloro-vitamin K1 have no effect on the protective function of vitamin K against oxidative injury.

Vitamin K does not prevent the depletion of intracellular glutathione caused by cystine deprivation but completely blocks free radical accumulation and cell death.

The protective and potent efficacy of this naturally occurring vitamin, with no established clinical side effects, suggests a potential therapeutic application in preventing oxidative damage to undifferentiated oligodendrocytes in perinatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury.


PMID: 12843286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE



J Neurosci Res. 2009 Jul;87(9):1997-2005.

Vitamin K prevents oxidative cell death by inhibiting activation of 12-lipoxygenase in developing oligodendrocytes.

Li J, Wang H, Rosenberg PA.


The F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Oxidative mechanisms of injury are important in many neurological disorders. Developing oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-mediated injury. We previously demonstrated a novel function of phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) and menaquinone 4 (MK-4; a major form of vitamin K2) in protecting pre-OLs and immature neurons against glutathione depletion-induced oxidative damage (Li et al. [ 2003] J. Neurosci. 23:5816-5826).

Here we report that vitamin K at nanomolar concentrations prevents arachidonic acid-induced oxidative injury to pre-OLs through blocking the activation of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). Arachidonic acid metabolism is a potential source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during ischemia and reperfusion. Exposure of pre-OLs to arachidonic acid resulted in oxidative cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of vitamin K (K(1) and MK-4) completely prevented the toxicity.

Consistent with our previous findings, inhibitors of 12-LOX abolished ROS production and cell death, indicating that activation of 12-LOX is a key event in arachidonic acid-induced pre-OL death. Vitamin K(1) and MK-4 significantly blocked 12-LOX activation and prevented ROS accumulation in pre-OLs challenged with arachidonic acid. However, vitamin K itself did not directly inhibit 12-LOX enzymatic activity when assayed with purified 12-LOX in vitro.

These results suggest that vitamin K, or likely its metabolites, acts upstream of activation of 12-LOX in pre-OLs. In summary, our data indicate that vitamin K prevents oxidative cell death by blocking activation of 12-LOX and ROS generation.

(c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PMID: 19235890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2911960
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Re: Glutathione and the Role of Inflammation in MS

Postby jackD » Thu Mar 29, 2012 12:29 pm

Free Radic Res. 2000 Feb;32(2):115-24.

Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity.

Kobayashi MS, Han D, Packer L.

SourceDepartment of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720-3200, USA.

Antioxidant therapy has been shown to be beneficial in neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia. Glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-4 neuronal cells has been previously demonstrated to be due to oxidative stress caused by depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH).

The present study demonstrates that a wide variety of antioxidants inhibit glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-4 neuronal cells. Low concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and its analogs were highly effective in protecting neuronal cells against cytotoxicity.

Purified flavonoids and herbal extracts of Gingko biloba (EGb 761) and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol) were also effective.

We have previously shown that pro-glutathione agents can spare GSH and protect cells from glutamate insult in a C6 glial cell model. The protective effects of nonthiol-based antioxidants tested in the HT-4 line were not mediated via GSH level modulation.

In contrast, protective effects of thiol-based pro-glutathione agents alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) corresponded with a sparing effect on GSH levels in glutamate-treated HT-4 cells. Glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-4 cells is a useful model system for testing compounds or mixtures for antioxidant activity.

PMID:10653482[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Re: Glutathione and the Role of Inflammation in MS

Postby jimmylegs » Fri Jun 01, 2012 3:49 pm

Selenium: Biochemical Role as a Component of Glutathione Peroxidase
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/179/4073/588.abstract

SELENIUM, VITAMIN E AND COPPER IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... x/abstract
The Se content of whole blood was low (52.8 ± 11.3 ng/ml) in MS patients from this high-risk area compared to the controls (68.8 ± 11.0). All Se values appeared to be lower than international values suggested.

Selenium and inflammation: underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19418416
Selenium may inhibit the activation of NF-kappaB by modulating selenoprotein genes expression. Moreover, Se supplementation in chronic inflammation restores the depleted hepatic and serum Se levels by increasing selenoprotein biosynthesis leading to suppressed CRP production thereby attenuating the inflammatory process.

additional reading on selenium, zinc and glutathione: general-discussion-f1/topic19670-60.html#p191336
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