Bile Acid

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Petr75
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Bile Acid

Post by Petr75 » Sat Mar 28, 2020 3:43 am

2020 Mar 17
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore
Bile Acid Metabolism Is Altered in Multiple Sclerosis and Supplementation Ameliorates Neuroinflammation
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32182223/

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Bile acids are cholesterol metabolites that can signal through receptors on cells throughout the body, including the CNS and immune system. Whether bile acid metabolism is abnormal in MS is unknown. Using global and targeted metabolomic profiling, we identified lower levels of circulating bile acid metabolites in multiple cohorts of adult and pediatric MS patients compared to controls. In white matter lesions from MS brain tissue, we noted the presence of bile acid receptors on immune and glial cells. To mechanistically examine the implications of lower levels of bile acids in MS, we studied the in vitro effects of an endogenous bile acid - tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on astrocyte and microglial polarization. TUDCA prevented neurotoxic (A1) polarization of astrocytes and pro-inflammatory polarization of microglia in a dose-dependent manner. TUDCA supplementation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reduced severity of disease through its effects on GPBAR1, based on behavioral and pathological measures. We demonstrate that bile acid metabolism is altered in MS; bile acid supplementation prevents polarization of astrocytes and microglia to neurotoxic phenotypes and ameliorates neuropathology in an animal model of MS. These findings identify dysregulated bile acid metabolism as a potential therapeutic target in MS.

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Petr75
Family Elder
Posts: 956
Joined: Sat Oct 19, 2013 10:17 am
Location: Czech Republic

Re: Bile Acid

Post by Petr75 » Sun Sep 20, 2020 2:00 am

2020 Aug 20
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin
Bile Acid Signaling in Neurodegenerative and Neurological Disorders
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32825239/

Abstract

Bile acids are commonly known as digestive agents for lipids. The mechanisms of bile acids in the gastrointestinal track during normal physiological conditions as well as hepatic and cholestatic diseases have been well studied. Bile acids additionally serve as ligands for signaling molecules such as nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor and membrane-bound receptors, Takeda G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Recent studies have shown that bile acid signaling may also have a prevalent role in the central nervous system. Some bile acids, such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, have shown neuroprotective potential in experimental animal models and clinical studies of many neurological conditions. Alterations in bile acid metabolism have been discovered as potential biomarkers for prognosis tools as well as the expression of various bile acid receptors in multiple neurological ailments. This review explores the findings of recent studies highlighting bile acid-mediated therapies and bile acid-mediated signaling and the roles they play in neurodegenerative and neurological diseases.

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