i am afraid i can't answer your question, but i do have a couple of potentially relevant thoughts.
since pharmaceutical antibiotic use is associated with increased risk of MS, i hope your daughter is also doing all she can to support optimal immune system function, via optimizing essential elemental nutrition to support health and minimize infection risk. how are her serum copper, ferritin, selenium and zinc levels for example?
Use of Penicillin and Other Antibiotics and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-based Case-Control Study
A 2006 study from the United Kingdom found that penicillin use may decrease the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). To confirm this finding, the authors conducted a nationwide case-control study in Denmark, using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to identify 3,259 patients with MS onset from 1996 to 2008, and selected 10 population controls per case (n = 32,590), matched on sex and age. Through the National Prescription Database, prescriptions for antibiotics redeemed from 1995 to 2008 and before the date of first MS symptom/index date were identified. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios associating antibiotic use with MS occurrence. In total, 1,922 patients (59%) redeemed penicillin prescriptions before the index date and 2,292 (70%) redeemed any type of antibiotic prescription. Penicillin use was associated with an increased risk of MS (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.27). Use of any type of antibiotic was similarly associated with an increased risk of MS (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.53). The odds ratios for different types of antibiotics ranged between 1.08 and 1.83. Thus, this study found that penicillin use and use of other antibiotics were similarly associated with increased risk of MS, suggesting that the underlying infections may be causally associated with MS.
Interactions between Chlamydia pneumoniae and trace elements: A possible link to aortic valve sclerosis
https://journals-scholarsportal-info.pr ... bcpate.xml
"The patient sera, compared to the healthy control plasma showed significantly increased Cu concentration and significantly decreased Zn concentration resulting in markedly elevated Cu/Zn ratio (mean ± SD: Cu patients: 126 ± 40.8 ng/dL; Cu controls: 111 ± 16 ng/mL, p < 0.05; Zn patients: 75.3 ± 21.4 ng/dL; Zn controls: 85.9 ± 18 ng/dL, p < 0.05)."
(aside: cu/zn ratio is bad even in the control group here :S since ideally it's in the 0.70-1.00 range... patient ratio here was 126/73=1.7, control ratio 111/86=1.3. both too high. if the controls got their serum zinc up to 120, they'd be right in the zone.... 111/120=0.93)
"In conclusion, Chlamydia pneumoniae nucleic acid can be found in advanced aortic sclerosis lesions in many patients. Several features of the trace element changes in valves and serum in all our patients, as well as the finding of Cp in the valves in a considerable proportion of our patients, are suggestive of an active immune process and infection, where the Fe results might represent a putative link to Cp considering the fact that accessibility of Fe is essential for bacterial growth (24)."
Influence of iron restriction on Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis
http://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/con ... 7-50-3-223
Iron is an essential metabolite for pathogenic bacteria, and the specificity exhibited by bacteria for host-iron chelates may be correlated with host and tissue tropism. The effect of iron restriction on Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis was studied by use of the iron-chelating compound deferoxamine. Growth of C. pneumoniae was inhibited much more than that of C. trachomatis and the effect of iron restriction largely depended on the cell line used for propagation. This might reflect differences in tissue tropism of the two chlamydial species. As iron levels are usually higher in men than in women, this might also be connected with the higher prevalence rate of C. pneumoniae antibodies in males, observed in all populations studied so far.
Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-a ... 45/4716268
Response of iron, copper, and zinc status to supplementation with Zn or a combination of Zn and Fe was assessed in adult females in a 10-wk study. Group Z received 50 mg Zn/d as Zn gluconate; group F-Z received 50 mg Fe as ferrous sulfate monohydrate in addition to the Zn. For Group Z, serum ferritin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (ESOD) were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) after 10 wk supplementation compared with pretreatment levels. Serum Zn increased (p less than 0.01) but no change occurred in serum ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin, or salivary sediment Zn with treatment. For Group F-Z ESOD decreased with treatment as did salivary sediment Zn (p less than 0.05). Serum ferritin and serum Zn increased significantly, but hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ceruloplasmin were not affected by this treatment. Supplementation with Zn poses a risk to Fe and Cu status. Inclusion of Fe with Zn ameliorates the effect on Fe but not on Cu status
meaning if you *want* to drop iron and copper for any reason, zinc's your guy.
another nutritional antiviral/antibiotic with relevance for ms patients:
Dietary habits and selenium, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
free full text: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/ar ... 2891-13-62
"Serum Se concentration ... in the serum of patients with MS (55.2±16.2 μg/L...) were significantly decreased ... compared with control group (79.2±20.6 μg/L ...)
Serum Se concentration, GSH-Px activity and TAS value were significantly lower in patients with relapsing-remitting MS compared with healthy volunteers. Dietary habits have a significant influence on Se status."
pursue optimal self care at least as actively as a diagnosis
ask for referrals to preventive health care specialists eg dietitians
don't let suboptimal self care muddy any underlying diagnostic picture!
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