Institute for Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK
Air Pollution (Particulate Matter) Exposure and Associations with Depression, Anxiety, Bipolar, Psychosis and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Particulate air pollution's physical health effects are well known, but associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and mental illness have not yet been established. However, there is increasing interest in emerging evidence supporting a possible etiological link.
This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the epidemiological literature to date by investigating quantitative associations between PM and multiple adverse mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, psychosis, or suicide).
We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from January 1974 to September 2017 for English-language human observational studies reporting quantitative associations between exposure to PM <1.0μm in aerodynamic diameter (ultrafine particles) and PM <2.5 and <10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) and the above psychiatric outcomes. We extracted data, appraised study quality using a published quality assessment tool, summarized methodological approaches, and conducted meta-analyses where appropriate.
Of 1,826 citations identified, 22 met our overall inclusion criteria, and we included 9 in our primary meta-analyses. In our meta-analysis of associations between long-term (>6 months) PM2.5 exposure and depression (n=5 studies), the pooled odds ratio was 1.102 per 10-μg/m3 PM2.5 increase (95% CI: 1.023, 1.189; I2=0.00%). Two of the included studies investigating associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and anxiety also reported statistically significant positive associations, and we found a statistically significant association between short-term PM10 exposure and suicide in meta-analysis at a 0-2 d cumulative exposure lag.
Our findings support the hypothesis of an association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and depression, as well as supporting hypotheses of possible associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and anxiety and between short-term PM10 exposure and suicide. The limited literature and methodological challenges in this field, including heterogeneous outcome definitions, exposure assessment, and residual confounding, suggest further high-quality studies are warranted to investigate potentially causal associations between air pollution and poor mental health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4595.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Association between air pollutants and development of chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
The association between incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and exposure to outdoor air pollution is under debate. We aimed to examine this relationship based on a systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis.
We screened the literature on long-term air pollution exposure assessment in the general population using an electronic search of PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to 20 October 2019. Observational studies investigating the association between long-term exposure to gaseous (CO, SO2, NO2, O3) or particulate (PM2.5 or PM10) outdoor air pollutants and CKD, ESRD, or renal dysfunction were included, and summary risks were estimated.
Of 4419 identified articles, 23 met our inclusion criteria after screening and 14 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect estimates had the following summary risk ratios (RRs) for CKD: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.00, 1.21; derived from four studies) per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 1.16 (95% CI 1.05, 1.29; derived from four studies) for PM10; 1.31 (95% CI 0.86, 2.00; derived from two studies) per 10 ppm increase in CO; and 1.11 (95% CI 1.09, 1.14; derived from three studies) per 10 ppb increase in NO2. For the pooled effect on eGFR, increases in PM10 and PM2.5 (of 10 μg/m3) were associated with eGFR decline by -0.83 (95% CI -1.54, -0.12; derived from two studies) and -4.11 (95% CI -12.64, 4.42; derived from two studies) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively.
Air pollution was observed to be associated with CKD and renal function decline. Although more longitudinal studies are required, we argue that air pollution is pernicious to kidney health.
2020 Jan 28
Effects of Abdominal Obesity on the Association Between Air Pollution and Kidney Function
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3199284 ... -function/
Cross-talks between the kidneys and the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease, which is considered as a common autoimmune disorder in young adults. A growing number of evidences indicated that the impairment in non-neural tissues plays a significant role in pathology of MS disease. There are bidirectional relationship, metabolic activities and functional similarity between central nervous system (CNS) and kidneys which suggest that kidney tissue may exert remarkable effects on some aspects of MS disorder and CNS impairment in these patients compels the kidney to respond to central inflammation. Recently, it has been well documented that hormonal secretion possesses the important role on CNS abnormalities. In this regard, due to the functional similarity and significant hormonal and non-hormonal relationship between CNS and kidneys, we hypothesized that kidneys exert significant effect on initiation, progression or amelioration of MS disease which might be regarded as potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of MS patients in the future...
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Rd, China
Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and ischemic stroke onset: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis using a distributed lag nonlinear model in Shenzhen, China
Stroke, especially ischemic stroke (IS), has been a severe public health problem around the world. However, the association between air pollution and ischemic stroke remains ambiguous.
SO2, NO2, PM10 and O3 exerted non-linear and delayed influence on IS, and such influence varied with gender and age. These findings may have significant public health implications for the prevention of IS.
24 June 2019
Multiple sclerosis and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis
https://bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com/art ... 019-1366-7
Compared with the general population, people with MS have an increased risk of developing any type of stroke and ischemic stroke in particular. Consistent results were obtained from patients of different sexes and age groups. Preventative measures and treatments should be administered at earlier time points to improve patient outcomes.
Information Engineering College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Short-term Effect of PM 1 on Hospital Admission for Ischemic Stroke: A Multi-City Case-Crossover Study in China
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3196226 ... -in-china/
..The pooled results showed that exposures to PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly associated with increased hospital admission for ischemic stroke on the current day and previous 1 day. The RRs (relative risk associated with per 10 μg/m3
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Comparing the lung cancer burden of ambient particulate matter using scenarios of air quality standards versus acceptable risk levels.
Ambient particulate matter (PM) is regulated with science-based air quality standards, whereas carcinogens are regulated with a number of "acceptable" cases. Given that PM is also carcinogenic, we identify differences between approaches.
We assessed the lung cancer deaths for Switzerland attributable to exposure to PM up to 10 µm (PM10) and to five particle-bound carcinogens. For PM10, we used an epidemiological approach based on relative risks with four exposure scenarios compared to two counterfactual concentrations. For carcinogens, we used a toxicological approach based on unit risks with four exposure scenarios.
The lung cancer burden using concentrations from 2010 was 10-14 times larger for PM10 than for the five carcinogens. However, the burden depends on the underlying exposure scenarios, counterfactual concentrations and number of carcinogens. All scenarios of the toxicological approach for five carcinogens result in a lower burden than the epidemiological approach for PM10.
Air quality standards-promoted so far by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines-provide a more appealing framework to guide health risk-oriented clean air policymaking than frameworks based on a number of "acceptable" cases.
July 1, 2019
MS Linked to Higher Cancer Risk
https://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosi ... cer-risk#1
20 May 2010
Multiple sclerosis and lung cancer: an unexpected inverse association
https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/ ... 25/1522647
Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Gender Difference in the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution on Cognitive Function Among Elderly in Korea.
Background/Aim: Given a fast-growing aging population in South Korea, the prevalence of cognitive impairment in elderly is increasing. Despite growing evidence of air pollution exposure as one of the risk factors for declining cognition, few studies have been conducted on gender difference in the relation of cognitive function associated with outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect modification of gender difference in the association between cognitive function and air pollutant exposure (PM10, PM2.5-10, and NO2). Methods: The study focused on elderly, and the resulting sample included 1,484 participants aged 55 and older with no neurologic diseases, recruited from the four regions in Korea (Seoul, Incheon, Pyeongchang, and Wonju). We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (with the conventional cut-off point "23-24") to assess cognitive decline as the primary outcome of the study. Air pollution data used in this study were based on the 5-year average of predicted PM10 and NO2 concentrations, as well as the 2015 average PM2.5 concentration. Additionally, a survey questionnaire was utilized to obtain information about general health assessment. To explore gender differences in the effects of air pollution exposure on cognitive function, we used penalized logistic regression, negative binomial regression, and generalized linear mixed model analyses. Subgroup analyses were also performed by the geographic location of residence (metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan). Results: We found that women than men had a higher risk for decreased cognitive function associated with increased exposure to PM10 and PM2.5-10, respectively, even after adjustments for confounding factors (OR 1.01 [95%CI 1.00-1.03] in PM10; OR 1.03 [95%CI 1.01-1.07] in PM2.5-10). After stratification by metropolitan status, we also found that the adverse effect of NO2 exposure on cognitive function was higher in women than men [OR 1.02 [95%CI 1.00-1.05] in metropolitan; OR 1.12 [95%CI 1.04-1.20] in non-metropolitan]. Notably, the magnitude of the effect sizes was greater among those in non-metropolitan regions than metropolitan ones. Conclusions: Although our findings suggest that the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on cognitive function appeared to be higher in women than men, this should be tentatively reflected due to some limitations in our results. While additional research is warranted to confirm or dispute our results, our findings suggest an indication of the need for developing and implementing prevention or interventions with a focus on elderly women with increased risk for air pollution exposure.
EPIGET LAB, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy
Nasal Microbiota Modifies the Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Plasma Extracellular Vesicles
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3196361 ... -vesicles/
Air pollution exposure has been linked to modifications of both extracellular vesicle (EV) concentration and nasal microbiota structure (NMB), which might act as the respiratory health gatekeeper. This study aimed to assess whether an unbalanced NMB could modify the effect of particulate matter (PM) exposure on plasmatic EV levels. Due to two different NMB taxonomical profiles characterized by a widely different relative abundance of the Moraxella genus, the enrolled population was stratified into Mor- (balanced NMB) and Mor+ (unbalanced NMB) groups (Moraxella genus's cut-off ≤25% and >25%, respectively). EV features were assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and flow-cytometry (FC). Multivariable analyses were applied on EV outcomes to evaluate a possible association between PM10 and PM2.5 and plasmatic EV levels. The Mor- group revealed positive associations between PM levels and plasmatic CD105+ EVs (GMR = 4.39 p = 0.02) as for total EV count (GMR = 1.92 p = 0.02). Conversely, the Mor+ group showed a negative association between exposure and EV outcomes (CD66+ GMR = 0.004 p = 0.01; EpCAM+ GMR = 0.005 p = 0.01). Our findings provide an insight regarding how a balanced NMB may help to counteract PM exposure effects in terms of plasmatic EV concentration. Further research is necessary to understand the relationship between the host and the NMB to disentangle the mechanism exerted by inhaled pollutants in modulating EVs and NMB.
2020 Jan 16
Department of Neurology, Bozok University Medical School, Yozgat, Turkey
Why Do Multiple Sclerosis and Migraine Coexist?
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3198266 ... e-coexist/
Background: Migraine coexistence, which is high in multiple sclerosis (MS), is reported. To better understand the etiology of the coexistence of MS and migraine and the outcomes of this relationship, the vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein (VITDBP), vitamin D receptor (VITDR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) values were examined in patients with the coexistence of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and migraine.
Methods: This study was conducted between January 1, 2019, and July 25, 2019, at the neurology and biochemistry clinics of two different tertiary hospitals simultaneously. Overall, 50 RRMS patients with migraine, 50 RRMS patients without migraine, and 50 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The participants' vitamin D, VITDBP, VITDR, hs-CRP, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, TAS, TOS, and OSI values were measured.
Results: The vitamin D and VITDR values of the RRMS patients with migraine were lower than those of the RRMS patients without migraine (respectively, p = 0.014, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the RRMS patients with and without migraine in terms of their VITDBP values (p = 0.570). The SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and TAS values of the RRMS patients with migraine were lower than those without migraine (all p < 0.001). The hs-CRP and TOS values of the RRMS patients with migraine were higher than those without migraine (all p < 0.001).
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on this topic to date. Based on the results, our study may shed light on the etiopathogenesis of the coexistence of MS and migraine and new treatments. However, more studies are needed to better understand the etiology of this relationship and its negative effects.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Association between Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Migraine in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... pei_Taiwan
This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particle (PM2.5) levels and daily clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for migraine and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. Generally, no significant associations between PM2.5 levels and migraine visits were observed on cool days. On warm days, however, for the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased clinic visits for migraine were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels, with an interquartile range (IQR) rise associated with a 13% (95% CI = 8%–19%) elevation in number of migraine visits. In bi-pollutant model, PM2.5 remained significant after the inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) or ozone (O3) on warm days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan.
2020 Jan 24
School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China
Seasonal Response of the Synergism of Maternal Comorbidities and Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure on Birth Outcomes
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3198645 ... -outcomes/
Air pollution has been considered as one of the most important factors associating with various birth outcomes. However, the seasonal response of maternal comorbidities effects associated with air pollution has not been investigated, especially in the city with distinguish seasonal pattern and long heating seasons. In this work, 69,945 live births were investigated from 2013 to 2016, and the seasonal relationship between air pollution and preterm birth and low birth weight were assessed, as well as the synergism of maternal comorbidities. Exposures of six pollutants were assigned to maternal residences during pregnancy. The potential effect modiﬁcation by maternal comorbidities on the associations was evaluated between prenatal air pollution and preterm birth (PTB), as well as effects of seasons and trimesters. Adjusting for seasonality, all six pollutants presented seasonal relationship with preterm birth, which CO, PM10, NO2, and PM2.5 were with [odds ratio (OR) = 1.035 95% CI: 1.015, 1.055, OR = 1.039 95% CI: 1.034, 1.045, OR = 1.042, 95% CI: 1.029, 1.056 and OR = 1.085 95% CI 1.073, 1.097, respectively] for tenth quartile of 10 μg/m3 range increased in autumn (the beginning of heating season). For O3, it associated with PTB in winter and spring with OR = 1.113 95% CI: 1.104, 1.123, and OR = 1.155 95% CI: 1.145, 1.165, respectively. The OR increase of PTB for exposure to all six pollutants was higher among women with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The associations between ambient air pollution and preterm birth were modiﬁed by gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The seasonal patterns of six studied air pollutants increases the risk of PTB in autumn and winter distinguishably, which may due to the sudden increased concentrations of pollutants emitted by traditional heating. The seasonal response of the synergism of maternal comorbidities and long-term air pollution exposure on birth outcomes is supported by the data sets of preterm birth.
Environmental Epidemiology Group, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, German
All-source and Source-Specific Air Pollution and 10-year Diabetes Incidence: Total Effect and Mediation Analyses in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3199123 ... all-study/
Background: An increasing number of studies have been published recently on the association between ambient air pollution (AP) and incident diabetes mellitus (DM), but studies investigating source-specific AP toxicity and potential mediating pathways are rare. We investigated the associations of all-source, traffic-specific, and industry-specific outdoor AP exposure with 10-year incidence of DM and potential mediation via inflammation-associated biomarkers.
Methods: Data from participants of the prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study who attended the baseline (t0; 2000-2003), 5-year follow-up (t1; 2006-2008), and 10-year follow-up (t2; 2011-2015) examinations was used. For participants without DM at baseline (determined using information on physician diagnosis and glucose-lowering medication), residential long-term exposure (total, traffic-specific, and industry-specific) to particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and accumulation mode particle number concentration (PNAM) were estimated using a chemistry transport model. Covariate-adjusted modified Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were applied to estimate relative risks (RR) for the associations between baseline AP and incident DM at t2. Mediation analyses for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were conducted to estimate natural direct and indirect effects.
Results: Of the 4,814 participants at t0, 2,451 participants (mean baseline age: 58.2 years) were included in the main analysis. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in total PM10 and PNAM were associated with increased risk of DM (e.g., RR: 1.25 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53] per 3.8 µg/m3 PM10). Whereas traffic-specific exposures were associated with DM risk for all air pollutants (e.g., RR: 1.24 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.46] per 0.3 µg/m3 PM10), significant associations for industry exposures were limited to NO2 and PNAM (e.g., RR: 1.24 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.49] per 230 particles/mL PNAM). Potential mediation of the association between AP and DM was observed for adiponectin but not for hsCRP and IL-1RA.
Conclusion: Our study shows that long-term exposure to total and source-specific ambient AP may increase DM risk, with consistent results observed across traffic-specific exposures. Decreases in adiponectin may play a potential role along the causal pathway.
Multiple Sclerosis and Associated Diseases: A Relationship to Diabetes Mellitus
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7225955 ... -mellitus/
Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, IMPECS (IMPact of Environmental ChemicalS on human health, France
Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants and the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease: A Fine-Scale Geographic Analysis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3201894 ... -analysis/
Geographical variations in cardiovascular disease rates have been linked to individual air pollutants. Investigating the relation between cardiovascular disease and exposure to a complex mixture of air pollutants requires holistic approaches. We assessed the relationship between exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a general population sample. We collected data in the Lille MONICA registry (2008-2011) on 3268 incident cases (age range: 35-74). Based on 20 indicators, we derived a composite environmental score (SEnv) for cumulative exposure to air pollution. Poisson regression models were used to analyse associations between CHD rates on one hand and SEnv and each single indicator on the other (considered in tertiles, where T3 is the most contaminated). We adjusted models for age, sex, area-level social deprivation, and neighbourhood spatial structure. The incidence of CHD was a spatially heterogeneous (p=0.006). There was a significant positive association between SEnv and CHD incidence (trend p=0.0151). The relative risks [95%CI] of CHD were 1.08 [0.98-1.18] and 1.16 [1.04-1.29] for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of SEnv exposure. In the single pollutant analysis, PM10, NO2, cadmium, copper, nickel, and palladium were significantly associated with CHD rates. Multiple air pollution was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Single pollutants reflecting road traffic pollution were the most strongly associated with CHD. Our present results are consistent with the literature data on the impact of road traffic on the CHD risk in urban areas.
JULY 20, 2015
The Association Between MS and Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.mdmag.com/peer-exchange/mul ... ry-disease
Analysis of data from the Framingham Study revealed the existence of an association between multiple sclerosis and coronary artery disease.
Dr. Dhib-Jalbut said researchers looked at about 600 patients from the Framingham study who had multiple sclerosis and found a correlation between progression of disability and increased risk of coronary artery disease after controlling for other risk factors such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
In patients with cardiac disease, all of their organ systems are going to be at risk, including the central nervous system. The Framingham study was interesting because “the worse the cardiovascular health they actually found a correlation with greater disability in MS, and the cardiovascular health was worse in the more disabled, progressive MS cohort than in the relapsing cohort. So it’s really emphasizing the benefit of a wellness, health maintenance, vascular risk factor program, not just for cardiovascular health but things like diet, exercise, sleep, hygiene, not smoking, moderation,” Dr. Coyle said.
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Biology, Section of Ecology & Systematics, Panepistimioupoli, Athens , Greece
Impact of a Green Roof System on Indoor Fungal Aerosol in a Primary School in Greece
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3211295 ... in-greece/
A primary school was investigated for airborne fungi by a culture-based method, in classrooms underneath a green roof in comparison to conventional concrete roofs. A portable Burkard sampler was used for the collection of air samples onto petri dishes with 2% Malt Extract Agar. The fungal aerosol mean concentration was 71 CFU m-3 (range 17-176 CFU m-3, median 51) in the classroom directly under the green roof, significantly lower than 192-228 CFU m-3 (range 0-1090 CFU m-3, median 69) under the concrete roofs and 188-412 CFU m-3 (range 0-2183 CFU m-3, median 771) in ground floor classrooms. The Indoor/Outdoor ratio was 0.4 for total fungi and 0.2-1.1 for predominant genera underneath the green roof, whereas 1-2.1 and 0.3-3.2 respectively for the rest of classrooms. The Potential Exposure Dose (PED) for fungal particles was calculated to 4.6 CFU kg-1 and 9.3-35.3 CFU kg-1 respectively. The genera Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus prevailed indoors and in ambient air. Aspergillus concentrations indoors correlated significantly with the concentration of the coarse fraction (PM10) of particulate matter. The genus Penicillium increased indoors during late spring and summer, in temperature 20-23 °C and relative humidity 42-53% and also predominated in ambient air, both indicative of multiple anthropogenic sources of amplification. The evidence about the green roof positive effect on microbial indoor air quality (mIAQ) is a matter of concern for further investigation.
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
Particulate Air Pollution From Different Sources and Mortality in 7.5 Million Adults - The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)
Background: Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated the association between emission contributions from different particle sources and mortality in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution from different source categories and non-accidental mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases.
Methods: We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighbourhood characteristics and modelled air pollution concentrations from different sources and air pollution components: particulate matter PM10, primary particulate matter PM10 (PPM10), particulate matter PM2.5, primary particulate matter PM2.5 (PPM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in PM10 (SIA10) or in PM2.5 (SIA2.5). We established a cohort of 7.5 million individuals 30 years or older. We followed the cohort for eight years (2008-2015). We applied Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders.
Results: We found statistically significant associations between total and primary particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), elemental carbon and mortality. Adjustment for nitrogen dioxide did not change the associations. Secondary inorganic aerosol showed less consistent associations. All primary PM sources were associated with mortality, except agricultural emissions and, depending on the statistical model, industrial PM emissions.
Conclusions: We could not identify one or more specific source categories of particulate air pollution as main determinants of the mortality effects found in this and in a previous study. This suggests that present policy measures should be focussed on the wider spectrum of air pollution sources instead of on specific sources.
By Lisa Friedman
New Research Links Air Pollution to Higher Coronavirus Death Rates
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/clim ... covid.html
WASHINGTON — Coronavirus patients in areas that had high levels of air pollution before the pandemic are more likely to die from the infection than patients in cleaner parts of the country, according to a new nationwide study that offers the first clear link between long-term exposure to pollution and Covid-19 death rates.
In an analysis of 3,080 counties in the United States, researchers at the Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that higher levels of the tiny, dangerous particles in air known as PM 2.5 were associated with higher death rates from the disease.
For weeks, public health officials have surmised a link between dirty air and death or serious illness from Covid-19, which is caused by the coronavirus. The Harvard analysis is the first nationwide study to show a statistical link, revealing a “large overlap” between Covid-19 deaths and other diseases associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter.
“The results of this paper suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution increases vulnerability to experiencing the most severe Covid-19 outcomes,” the authors wrote.
The paper found that if Manhattan had lowered its average particulate matter level by just a single unit, or one microgram per cubic meter, over the past 20 years, the borough would most likely have seen 248 fewer Covid-19 deaths by this point in the outbreak.
Over all, the research could have significant implications for how public health officials choose to allocate resources like ventilators and respirators as the coronavirus spreads. The paper has been submitted for peer review and publication in the New England Journal of Medicine....
Air pollution could be a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), a new study conducted in Italy has found. (2020)
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