Institute of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
Cholesterol level correlate with disability score in patients with relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by demyelination. There are many environmental factors that can affect the progression of this disease. It is necessary to better understand the impact of these factors in MS pathogenesis and progression.
Present study investigates the relationship of total cholesterol serum levels and other parameters contributing to cardiovascular risk - homocysteine and serum lipid parameters (triglycerides, HDL, LDL) - with the progression of MS (EDSS score).
The study involved 169 patients diagnosed with MS. Total homocysteine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipid parameters were measured with enzymatic kits.
There was no difference observed between homocysteine levels in MS patients and controls. Dyslipidaemia seems to be associated with MS progression, particularly in women with relapsing-remitting form of MS.
Positive correlation of total and LDL cholesterol with disability score in patients with relapsing-remitting form of MS suggests that lipid parameters could have a negative effect on the disease progression.
Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
Lipoprotein markers associated with disability from multiple sclerosis
Altered lipid metabolism is a feature of chronic inflammatory disorders. Increased plasma lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. Our objective was to characterise the specific lipids and associated plasma lipoproteins increased in MS and to test for an association with disability. Plasma samples were collected from 27 RRMS patients (median EDSS, 1.5, range 1-7) and 31 healthy controls. Concentrations of lipids within lipoprotein sub-classes were determined from NMR spectra. Plasma cytokines were measured using the MesoScale Discovery V-PLEX kit. Associations were tested using multivariate linear regression. Differences between the patient and volunteer groups were found for lipids within VLDL and HDL lipoprotein sub-fractions (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression demonstrated a high correlation between lipids within VLDL sub-classes and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (p < 0.05). An optimal model for EDSS included free cholesterol carried by VLDL-2, gender and age (R2 = 0.38, p < 0.05). Free cholesterol carried by VLDL-2 was highly correlated with plasma cytokines CCL-17 and IL-7 (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.0001). These results highlight relationships between disability, inflammatory responses and systemic lipid metabolism in RRMS. Altered lipid metabolism with systemic inflammation may contribute to immune activation.
As someone who has always had high cholesterol levels, I can state this is simply not the case for me, thankfully!
I think we have to be careful here to not mix apples with pears. The second study is really focusing on VLDL-2. There are distinctions between the manufacture of VLDL-1 and 2. Obesity is a major focus of research when you get down to that level and there are distinct differences between males and premenopausal females. All of this introduces a plethora of other variables. You don't need to read this article but you can see at a glance that it is not straight forward https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/97/7/2475/2834430
CCL-17 and IL-7 are just two of many inflammatory markers. To draw a line between them and EDSS scores is a big stretch. I would say too big.
It feels like both articles are trying to data fit to me.
Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Lipid-related genetic polymorphisms significantly modulate the association between lipids and disability progression in multiple sclerosis
To investigate whether lipid-related or body mass index (BMI)-related common genetic polymorphisms modulate the associations between serum lipid levels, BMI and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS).
The association between disability progression (annualised Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) change over 5 years, ΔEDSS) and lipid-related or BMI-related genetic polymorphisms was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort (n=184), diagnosed with MS. We constructed a cumulative genetic risk score (CGRS) of associated polymorphisms (p<0.05) and examined the interactions between the CGRS and lipid levels (measured at baseline) in predicting ΔEDSS. All analyses were conducted using linear regression.
Five lipid polymorphisms (rs2013208, rs9488822, rs17173637, rs10401969 and rs2277862) and one BMI polymorphism (rs2033529) were nominally associated with ΔEDSS. The constructed lipid CGRS showed a significant, dose-dependent association with ΔEDSS (ptrend=1.4×10-6), such that participants having ≥6 risk alleles progressed 0.38 EDSS points per year faster compared with those having ≤3. This CGRS model explained 16% of the variance in ΔEDSS. We also found significant interactions between the CGRS and lipid levels in modulating ΔEDSS, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL; pinteraction=0.005) and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio (TC:HDL; pinteraction=0.030). The combined model (combination of CGRS and the lipid parameter) explained 26% of the disability variance for HDL and 27% for TC:HDL.
In this prospective cohort study, both lipid levels and lipid-related polymorphisms individually and jointly were associated with significantly increased disability progression in MS. These results indicate that these polymorphisms and tagged genes might be potential points of intervention to moderate disability progression.
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