Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, via Monteroni, Lecce, Italy
Copper and ceruloplasmin dyshomeostasis in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis subjects.
Although many studies have been carried out in order to understand the implication of copper (Cu) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the exact role that this metal plays in the disease is not still clear. Because of the lack of information in this subject, the present study compared the serum and cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of copper in MS patients in respect to a control group, matched for age and sex, finding a significant increase of metal concentrations, in both biological fluids of MS subjects. To confirm the possible impairment of Cu metabolism, we analyzed ceruloplasmin (Cp) level and activity, seeing as this protein is an established peripheral marker in diseases associated with Cu imbalance. By comparing these two parameters between control and MS subjects, we found an increase of Cp levels, associated with a decrease in Cp activity, in the second group. By analysing these data, free copper levels were calculated, significantly increased in serum of MS subjects; the increase in free copper could be one of the predisposing factors responsible for the Cu altered levels in CSF of MS patients. At the same time, this alteration could be attributable to the inability to incorporate Cu by Cp, probably due to the high oxidative environment found in serum of MS patients. Overall, all these copper alterations may play a role in MS pathogenesis.
Copper and AD
2019 Feb 25
Department of Technological Innovations, Rome, Italy
Evidences of copper nanoparticle exposure in indoor environments: Long-term assessment, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation, in silico respiratory dosimetry study and possible health implications.
A variety of appliances operated by brush electric motors, widely used in indoor environments, emit nanoparticles (NPs). Due to electric arc discharge during the operation of such motors, some NPs contain copper (Cu). Their dimensions are the same of those found in brain tissue samples by other authors who speculated their possible translocation to brain through olfactory bulb. Cu has been reported to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the present study was performed to 1. estimate by means of Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model the doses of NPs released by electric appliances that can potentially deposit on the olfactory bulb; 2. investigate the morphology and the composition of particles emitted by some electric appliances daily used in indoor environments; 3. monitor for a long time period the Cu contamination of indoor environments due to this kind of appliances. About 106-107 NPs deposit on the olfactory bulb during the operation (1.5-6 min) of such appliances, with a major contribution due to 10-20 nm NPs. HR-FESEM characterization confirmed the presence of such NPs, that were observed both as individual particles (20-40 nm) and aggregated to form particles in the μm sizes range. XEDS microanalysis revealed the presence of Cu together with other elements. Relevant daily contamination of indoor environments due to these appliances has been confirmed by monitoring throughout a year the Cu content of PM10 samples collected both indoor and outdoor private dwellings. Cu was present in great part as an insoluble form. This means that, following protracted exposure, Cu NPs of such origin may undergo tissue accumulation. This is cause of concern because general population is chronically exposed to such Cu nanoparticles in indoor environments and in view of the role assigned to Cu in the development of neurological disorders.
Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Copper chelation and autoimmunity differentially impact myelin in the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. About 50% of MS patients develop deficits in learning, memory and executive function, which are accompanied by demyelinating lesions in the hippocampus and/or prefrontal cortex (PFC). Why demyelination in these regions occurs in some patients but not in others and what is the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here we report that myelin density in the hippocampus and PFC is markedly reduced in the cuprizone model, but not in the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These two models can be used for studying different neuropathophysiological aspects of demyelinating diseases.
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