Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences, IdISSC, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Vitamin D increases remyelination by promoting oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation
Several experimental studies have suggested the potential remyelinating effects of vitamin D (VitD) supplements regardless of the presence of VitD deficiency. This study aims to analyze neurogenesis in a model of toxic demyelination in order to evaluate the effects of VitD on demyelination and remyelination.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
We used 24 male Wistar rats that had received surgical lesions to the corpus callosum and were injected with lysolecithin. Rats were divided into three groups: Group 1 included eight rats with lesions to the corpus callosum but not lysolecithin injections (sham group), group 2 included eight rats with lesions to the corpus callosum that were injected with lysolecithin (lysolecithin group), and group 3 included eight rats with lesions that were injected with lysolecithin and received VitD (VitD group). We analyzed neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and at the lesion site.
Administration of VitD promotes the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and the migration of these cells to the lesion site in the corpus callosum; these cells subsequently differentiate into oligodendrocyte lineage cells and produce myelin basic protein. This phenomenon was not caused by microglial activation, which was less marked in rats receiving VitD. Megalin expression did not increase at the lesion site, which suggests that VitD is internalized by other mechanisms.
Our results support the hypothesis that regardless of the presence of VitD deficiency, treatment with VitD may contribute to remyelination by promoting the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.
Department of Neurology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 516D Abramson Center, 3615 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia
Inhibitors of Myelination and Remyelination, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Are Upregulated in Human Neurological Disease
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203059 ... l-disease/
During demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, myelin is destroyed and along with it, the oligodendrocytes that synthesize the myelin. Thus, recovery is limited due to both interruptions in neuronal transmission as well as lack of support for neurons. Although oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain abundant in the central nervous system, they rarely mature and form new functional myelin in the diseased CNS. In cell culture and in experimental models of demyelinating disease, inhibitory signaling factors decrease myelination and remyelination. One of the most potent of these are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a family of proteins that strongly inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and myelination in culture. BMPs are highly expressed in the dorsal CNS during pre-natal development and serve to regulate dorsal ventral patterning. Their expression decreases after birth but is significantly increased in rodent demyelination models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cuprizone ingestion and spinal cord injury. However, until recently, evidence for BMP upregulation in human disease has been scarce. This review discusses new human studies showing that in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases, BMPs are expressed by immune cells invading the CNS as well as resident CNS cell types, mostly astrocytes and microglia. Expression of endogenous BMP antagonists is also regulated. Identification of BMPs in the CNS is correlated with areas of demyelination and inflammation. These studies further support BMP as a potential therapeutic target.
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada
Niacin-mediated Rejuvenation of Macrophage/Microglia Enhances Remyelination of the Aging Central Nervous System
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203046 ... us-system/
Remyelination following CNS demyelination restores rapid signal propagation and protects axons; however, its efficiency declines with increasing age. Both intrinsic changes in the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell population and extrinsic factors in the lesion microenvironment of older subjects contribute to this decline. Microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages are critical for successful remyelination, releasing growth factors and clearing inhibitory myelin debris. Several studies have implicated delayed recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions as a key contributor to the decline in remyelination observed in older subjects. Here we show that the decreased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36 of aging mouse microglia and human microglia in culture underlies their reduced phagocytic activity. Overexpression of CD36 in cultured microglia rescues the deficit in phagocytosis of myelin debris. By screening for clinically approved agents that stimulate macrophages/microglia, we have found that niacin (vitamin B3) upregulates CD36 expression and enhances myelin phagocytosis by microglia in culture. This increase in myelin phagocytosis is mediated through the niacin receptor (hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2). Genetic fate mapping and multiphoton live imaging show that systemic treatment of 9-12-month-old demyelinated mice with therapeutically relevant doses of niacin promotes myelin debris clearance in lesions by both peripherally derived macrophages and microglia. This is accompanied by enhancement of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers and by improved remyelination in the treated mice. Niacin represents a safe and translationally amenable regenerative therapy for chronic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Iran
Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Metformin Accelerates Myelin Recovery and Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits in the Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis via Adjustment of AMPK/Nrf2/mTOR Signaling and Maintenance of Endogenous Oligodendrogenesis During Brain Self-Repairing Period
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3204824 ... ng-period/
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disorder characterized by oligodendrocytes (OLGs) loss and demyelination. In this study, we have examined the effects of metformin (MET) on the oligodendrogenesis, redox signaling, apoptosis, and glial responses during a self-repairing period (1-week) in the animal model of MS.
Methods: For induction of demyelination, C57BL/6 J mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone (CPZ) for 5 weeks. Thereafter, CPZ was removed for 1-week and molecular and behavioral changes were monitored in the presence or absence of MET (50 mg/kg body weight/day).
Results: MET remarkably increased the localization of precursor OLGs (NG2+/O4+ cells) and subsequently the renewal of mature OLGs (MOG+ cells) in the corpus callosum via AMPK/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Moreover, we observed a significant elevation in the antioxidant responses, especially in mature OLGs (MOG+/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2+) cells) after MET intervention. MET also reduced brain apoptosis markers and lessened motor dysfunction in the open-field test. While MET was unable to decrease active astrogliosis (GFAP mRNA), it reduced microgliosis by down-regulation of Mac-3 mRNA a marker of pro-inflammatory microglia/macrophages. Molecular modeling studies, likewise, confirmed that MET exerts its effects via direct interaction with AMPK.
Conclusions: Altogether, our study reveals that MET effectively induces lesion reduction and elevated molecular processes that support myelin recovery via direct activation of AMPK and indirect regulation of AMPK/Nrf2/mTOR pathway in OLGs. These findings facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies based on AMPK activation for MS in the near future.
Department of Immunology, Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Oncostatin M-induced Astrocytic Tissue Inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 Drives Remyelination
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3207122 ... elination/
The brain's endogenous capacity to restore damaged myelin deteriorates during the course of demyelinating disorders. Currently, no treatment options are available to establish remyelination. Chronic demyelination leads to damaged axons and irreversible destruction of the central nervous system (CNS). We identified two promising therapeutic candidates which enhance remyelination: oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family, and downstream mediator tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). While remyelination was completely abrogated in OSMRβ knockout (KO) mice, OSM overexpression in the chronically demyelinated CNS established remyelination. Astrocytic TIMP-1 was demonstrated to play a pivotal role in OSM-mediated remyelination. Astrocyte-derived TIMP-1 drove differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into mature oligodendrocytes in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency completely abolished spontaneous remyelination, phenocopying OSMRβ KO mice. Finally, TIMP-1 was expressed by human astrocytes in demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions, confirming the human value of our findings. Taken together, OSM and its downstream mediator TIMP-1 have the therapeutic potential to boost remyelination in demyelinating disorders.
wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncostatin_M
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine
Regulatory T cells promote remyelination in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis following human neural stem cell transplant.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) for which there is no cure. In MS, encephalitogenic T cells infiltrate the CNS causing demyelination and neuroinflammation; however, little is known about the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CNS tissue repair. Transplantation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs and NPCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy to promote repair through cell replacement, although recent findings suggest transplanted NSCs also instruct endogenous repair mechanisms. We have recently described that dampened neuroinflammation and increased remyelination is correlated with emergence of Tregs following human NPC transplantation in a murine viral model of immune-mediated demyelination. In the current study we utilized the prototypic murine autoimmune model of demyelination experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to test the efficacy of hNSC transplantation. Eight-week-old, male EAE mice receiving an intraspinal transplant of hNSCs during the chronic phase of disease displayed remyelination, dampened neuroinflammation, and an increase in CNS CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Importantly, ablation of Tregs abrogated histopathological improvement. Tregs are essential for maintenance of T cell homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity, and an emerging role for Tregs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis through interactions with stem and progenitor cells has recently been suggested. The data presented here provide direct evidence for collaboration between CNS Tregs and hNSCs promoting remyelination.
Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School,Hannover, Germany
Delayed Demyelination and Impaired Remyelination in Aged Mice in the Cuprizone Model.
To unravel the failure of remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) and to test promising remyelinating treatments, suitable animal models like the well-established cuprizone model are required. However, this model is only standardized in young mice. This does not represent the typical age of MS patients. Furthermore, remyelination is very fast in young mice, hindering the examination of effects of remyelination-promoting agents. Thus, there is the need for a better animal model to study remyelination. We therefore aimed to establish the cuprizone model in aged mice. 6-month-old C57BL6 mice were fed with different concentrations of cuprizone (0.2-0.6%) for 5-6.5 weeks. De- and remyelination in the medial and lateral parts of the corpus callosum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Feeding aged mice 0.4% cuprizone for 6.5 weeks resulted in the best and most reliable administration scheme with virtually complete demyelination of the corpus callosum. This was accompanied by a strong accumulation of microglia and near absolute loss of mature oligodendrocytes. Subsequent remyelination was initially robust but remained incomplete. The remyelination process in mature adult mice better represents the age of MS patients and offers a better model for the examination of regenerative therapies.
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